• Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Management of Patient With Bilateral Lung Bullar
    Vol 11 No 1 (2024)

    Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Management of Patient With Bilateral Lung Bullar: a Case Report

     

    Tresia Fransiska Uliana Tambunan1, Dinna Yulistya Ningrum2, Dave Nicander Kurnain3

    1Cardiorespiration Division, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, University of Indonesia, Jakarta

    2Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Resident University of Indonesia, Jakarta

    3Faculty of Medicine, Tarumanagara University, Jakarta

     

    Correspondent:

    Tresia Fransiska UT, Cardiorespiratory division, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation department, University of Indonesia, Jakarta.

    Email: fransiska_ut@yahoo.com.au   

    Phone: +62 816-1976-762

    Abstract

    Lung bullae are defined as air spaces in the lungs, measuring more than 1 cm in diameter when distended, while giant bullae occupy at least 30% of the hemithorax. Bullae are thought to be in contact with the bronchial tree; they are preferentially filled during inspiration, causing collapse of the adjacent normal lung parenchyma. Clinical manifestations of giant bullae include cough, dyspnea, and chest pain, but in some cases, the condition may be asymptomatic. Although the diagnosis of infected bullae has been reported, tuberculosis as a causative pathogen is rare. This case Present a 27 year old male patient came to the medical rehabilitation department of feeling easily tired when walked more than 8 meters. The patient was initially diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis 14 months ago, and completed 12 months of antituberculosis treatment. He underwent a thoracotomy decortication wedge resection of the right superior lobe of lung and another thoracotomy to evacuate the haematoma and control the bleeding two weeks before admision. From the physical examination, he had forward head posture, rounded shoulders, and slight hyperkyphotic posture. Respiromotor status showed decreased chest expansion and asymmetrical movement during respiration. Two weeks after rehabilitation program consist of breathing control, chest expansion exercise, airway clearance technique, and aerobic exercises, the patient shows improvement.

    Key words: Lung Bullae, Rehabilitation, Thoracotomy, Tuberculosis.

    Abstrak

    Bula paru didefinisikan sebagai ruang udara di paru-paru, berukuran diameter lebih dari 1 cm saat menggembung, sedangkan bula besar menempati setidaknya 30% hemithorax. Bula diperkirakan bersentuhan dengan cabang bronkial; yang terisi selama selama inspirasi, menyebabkan kolapsnya parenkim paru normal. Manifestasi klinis dari bula besar meliputi batuk, dispnea, dan nyeri dada, namun pada beberapa kasus, kondisi ini mungkin tidak menunjukkan gejala. Meskipun diagnosis bula yang terinfeksi telah dilaporkan, tuberkulosis sebagai patogen penyebab jarang terjadi. Laporan kasus ini melaporkan seorang laki-laki berusia 27 tahun datang ke bagian rehabilitasi medis dengan perasaan mudah lelah jika berjalan lebih dari 8 meter. Pasien awalnya terdiagnosis tuberkulosis paru 14 bulan yang lalu, dan menyelesaikan pengobatan antituberkulosis selama 12 bulan. Dia menjalani reseksi dekortikasi torakotomi pada lobus paru superior kanan dan torakotomi lainnya untuk mengevakuasi hematoma dan mengontrol pendarahan dua minggu sebelum datang ke rumah sakit. Dari pemeriksaan fisik didapatkan postur kepala ke depan, bahu membulat, dan postur sedikit hiperkimfosis. Status respiromotor menunjukkan penurunan ekspansi dada dan gerakan asimetris saat respirasi. Dua minggu setelah program rehabilitasi yang terdiri dari kontrol pernapasan, latihan ekspansi dada, teknik pembersihan jalan napas, dan latihan aerobik, pasien menunjukkan perbaikan.

    Kata kunci: Bula paru, Rehabilitasi, Torakotomi, Tuberkulosis.

     

     

  • A Rare Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis, Hepatic Tuberculosis
    Vol 11 No 1 (2024)

    A Rare Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis, Hepatic Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    Ghea Arifah Shabrina1, Telly Kamelia2

    1Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

    2Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

     

     

     

    ABSTRACT

    Introduction:

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a disease that attacks the lung parenchyma and can infect other organs. Tuberculosis is a significant health problem and is highly prevalent in developing countries. Abdominal Tuberculosis (TB) is a rare variant of TB, and hepatic tuberculosis is the most infrequent manifestation of tuberculosis infections.

     

    Case Illustration:

    A 44-year-old female patient complained of abdominal pain since one year ago. Abdominal pain felt in the lower right abdomen, sometimes spreading to the back side. Abdominal pain felt intermittent, not affected by eating or defecation. There were no complaints of fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, and palpitations. The patient denied weight loss, loss of appetite, night sweats, or fluctuating fever. There was no prior history of tuberculosis. These patients have normal liver function and elevated alkaline phosphatase. Multiple calcified hypodense lesions appear in segments VII-VIII of the liver in a Computed Tomography (CT) Scan. A liver biopsy showed clusters of epithelioid cells accompanied by multinucleated giant cells. There was also necrosis resembling caseous necrosis with negative Acid-Fast Bacteria staining. The histological conclusion was following granulomatous inflammation, the possibility of tuberculosis infection could not be ruled out, and no malignant tumor cells were found in the preparations. The stage of fibrosis is around F2-F3. The patient was then diagnosed with hepatic tuberculosis and received anti-tuberculosis therapy. Obtained resolution of abdominal pain improvement and assessment of liver function remained normal after this 2-week treatment.

     

    Conclusion:

    Hepatic TB is a manifestation of extrapulmonary TB, which is rarely found. Anamnesis, physical examination, and supporting examinations are carried out to diagnose hepatic TB. Investigations such as imaging and liver biopsy can help diagnose this type of TB. The treatment given for hepatic TB is given according to the same regimen as other extrapulmonary TB.

     

    Keywords: Hepatic Tuberculosis, Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis, Diagnosis, Management
  • Bronchial Thermoplasty in Severe Asthma Patients
    Vol 11 No 1 (2024)

    Bronchial Thermoplasty in Severe Asthma Patients: A Literature Review

    Yosua Kevin Hermawan1, Ida Ayu Ika Wari Utami2

    1 Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Wangaya General Hospital, Denpasar, Indonesia
    2 Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Wangaya General Hospital, Denpasar, Indonesia

     

    Abstract

    Severe asthma is caused by chronic inflammation in the airway. Several treatments have been proposed to treat severe asthma. Bronchial thermoplasty is part of management that has been proposed to treat severe asthma. The treatment has been mentioned in asthma guidelines released by Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) as an interventional management option in uncontrolled severe asthma. Bronchial thermoplasty is approved for patients with the age of at least 18 years old. The treatment is focus on airway smooth muscle by delivering radiofrequency ablation using bronchoscopy. Airway remodeling is an important feature in the disease course of asthma. There are three large randomized trial that has been done for bronchial thermoplasty. The trials recorded an increase in quality of life from asthma patients that have been treated and reduce in exacerbation frequency in long term follow up. The trials also show increased in emergency departments visit and asthma exacerbation for within a certain period after the procedure. Long term follows up of the patients that has undergone the procedure show no deterioration in terms of lung function, indicating a persistent effect of the bronchial thermoplasty. Better understanding in mechanisms of the procedure in the airway and more trials about safety and efficacy is still needed.

    Keywords: Bronchial Thermoplasty, Airway smooth muscle, Interventional

  • Terapi Inhalasi Konvensional Pada Pasien Dewasa
    Vol 11 No 1 (2024)
    Terapi Inhalasi Konvensional Pada Pasien Dewasa

     

    Fatih Anfasa1, Gurmeet Singh2

     

     

    1 Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia, Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Nasional Cipto Mangunkusumo

    2 Divisi Respirologi dan Penyakit Medis Kritis, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia, Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Nasional Cipto Mangunkusumo

    Alamat korespondensi: Dr. dr. Gurmeet Singh, SpPD, K-P. Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam FKUI-RSCM. Jl Diponegoro No. 71, Jakarta Pusat.

    Alamat email: gurmeetsingh10@yahoo,com

     

    Abstrak

    Terapi inhalasi konvensional merupakan salah satu terapi penting pada berbagai penyakit saluran nafas, terutama asma dan penyakit paru obstruktif kronik (PPOK). Pemberian obat melalui inhalasi memberikan berbagai keuntungan dibandingkan pemberian obat melalui jalur lainnya terutama untuk penyakit yang melibatkan organ pernapasan. Meskipun demikian, keefektifan terapi akan berkurang jika pasien tidak dapat menggunakan alat inhalasi dengan tepat. Kesalahan pemakaian alat inhalasi berhubungan dengan menurunnya kontrol penyakit asma, prognosis PPOK yang buruk, serta meningkatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas. Sari pustaka ini bertujuan untuk menjabarkan mekanisme terapi inhalasi konvensional dan berbagai modalitas terapi yang ada untuk pasien dewasa.   

    Kata Kunci: terapi inhalasi, pasien dewasa

     

     

    Abstract

    Conventional inhalation therapy is an important therapy for various respiratory diseases, especially asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Administering drugs via inhalation provides various advantages compared to other routes, especially for diseases involving the respiratory organs. However, the effectiveness of therapy will be reduced if the patient cannot use the inhalation devices correctly. Incorrect use of inhalation devices is associated with decreased asthma control, poor COPD prognosis, as well as increased morbidity and mortality. This article aims to describe the mechanism of conventional inhalation therapy and various therapeutic modalities available for adult patients.

    Keywords: inhalation therapy, adult patients

  • Faktor Risiko Kejadian Tuberkulosis Paru di Berbagai Wilayah Indonesia
    Vol 11 No 1 (2024)

    Faktor Risiko Kejadian Tuberkulosis Paru di Berbagai Wilayah Indonesia

     

    Alya Humaida Avy1, Balqis Permata Hutami2, M. Zhafran Alfalah3, Syeri Febriyanti4

     

    Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Bengkulu

     

     

    Abstract


    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that attacks the lung organs. This disease can lead to many complications and deaths if not treated properly. Tuberculosis in Indonesia remains a major challenge and requires the attention of all parties. Moreover, Indonesia is currently in the second place with the largest number of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in the world. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk factors of lung tuberculosis in various regions of Indonesia.

    Method: The method used is the study of literature by searching for scientific articles from online databases.

    Results: The results of the study show that there are several risk factors that influence the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in Indonesia. The risk factors obtained have much in common in different regions of Indonesia. Each of these risk factors exacerbates and increases the potential for pulmonary TB by generating OR values for each variable. According to the research journal, the six most important risk factors in the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in various regions of Indonesia are smoking habits, poor nutritional status, contact with the patient, knowledge level, population density, and poor ventilation of the house.

    Conclusion: In this study we highlighted six risk factors for lung tuberculosis in various regions of Indonesia, namely smoking habits, poor nutritional status, contact with the affected, knowledge level, population density, and poor ventilation of the home.

     

    Keywords: Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Risk Factor, regions of Indonesia


    Abstrak

    Latar belakang: Tuberkulosis (TB) adalah suatu penyakit infeksi menular yang disebabkan oleh Mycobacterium tuberkulosis  yang menyerang organ paru. Penyakit ini bisa mengakibatkan banyak komplikasi dan berujung kematian apabila tidak tepat penanganannya. Penyakit Tuberkulosis di Indonesia masih menjadi tantangan besar yang dihadapi dan memerlukan perhatian semua pihak. Terlebih, Indonesia saat ini berada di urutan kedua dengan kasus TB paru terbanyak di dunia. Tujuan dari kajian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi faktor risiko dari Tuberkulosis paru di berbagai wilayah Indonesia.

    Metode: Metode yang digunakan adalah studi literatur dengan mencari artikel ilmiah dari database online.

    Hasil: Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa ada beberapa faktor risiko yang berpengaruh terhadap kejadian Tuberkulosis paru di Indonesia. Faktor – faktor risiko yang didapat memiliki banyak kesamaan di berbagai wilayah Indonesia. Masing – masing dari faktor risiko tersebut memperberat dan meningkatkan potensi kejadian TB paru dilihat dari nilai OR untuk setiap variabel. Berdasarkan jurnal penelitian, didapatkan 6 faktor risiko yang paling berperan dalam angka kejadian TB paru di berbagai wilayah Indonesia, yaitu  kebiasaan merokok, status gizi buruk, kontak dengan penderita, tingkat pengetahuan, kepadatan hunian, dan ventilasi rumah yang kurang baik.

    Kesimpulan: Pada kajian ini, kami menyoroti terdapat 6 faktor risiko kejadian Tuberkulosis paru di berbagai wilayah Indonesia, yaitu kebiasaan merokok, status gizi buruk, kontak dengan penderita, tingkat pengetahuan, kepadatan hunian, dan ventilasi rumah yang kurang baik.

     

    Keyword : Tuberkulosis Paru , Faktor Risiko, Wilayah Indonesia

  • KORELASI NYERI DENGAN AGITASI PADA PASIEN YANG TERINTUBASI DI ICU RUMAH SAKIT UMUM PUSAT HAJI ADAM MALIK MEDAN
    Vol 11 No 1 (2024)

    KORELASI NYERI DENGAN AGITASI PADA PASIEN YANG TERINTUBASI DI ICU RUMAH SAKIT UMUM PUSAT HAJI ADAM MALIK MEDAN

     

     

    Muhammad Syakur1 ,  Tasrif Hamdi 2  , Andriamuri Primaputra Lubis2

     1Program Studi Magister Kedokteran Klinik / Program Studi Anestesiologi dan Perawatan Intensif, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Sumatera Utara-Rumah Sakit Umum H. Adam Malik Medan, Indonesia

    2Program Studi / Departemen Anestesiologi dan Perawatan Intensif, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Sumatera Utara-Rumah Sakit Umum H. Adam Malik Medan, Indonesia

     

    ABSTRAK


    Latar Belakang: Agitasi umum terjadi pada pasien ICU dan dapat disebabkan oleh faktor-faktor seperti lingkungan baru, paparan obat, kondisi medis, dan kondisi kesehatan mental. Nyeri juga banyak dialami oleh pasien yang diintubasi di ICU yang menerima perawatan medis seperti suctioning ETT, pemasangan kateter urin, nasogastrik, dan tindakan perawatan pasien rutin sehari-hari dapat memperburuk agitasi. Dalam perawatan ICU, penting untuk mempertimbangkan hubungan antara agitasi, nyeri, delirium, dan faktor-faktor lain untuk mengelola dan mengatasi kondisi pasien secara efektif.

    Tujuan: Untuk menganalisis korelasi antara nyeri menggunakan CPOT dan agitasi menggunakan RASS pada pasien intubasi di ICU Rumah Sakit Umum Haji Adam Malik.

    Metode: Desain penelitian adalah analitik observasional dengan studi cross sectional menggunakan skala CPOT dan RASS sebagai alat ukur selama periode Oktober 2023.

    Hasil: Semua data karakteristik (usia, jenis kelamin, BMI, durasi perawatan ICU, dan durasi penggunaan ventilator) tidak menemukan perbedaan dan korelasi (p>0,05) antara kelompok non-bedah dan bedah. Ada perbedaan yang signifikan secara statistik (p<0,001) antara pengukuran pagi dan sore di semua penilaian hemodinamik. Diketahui ada korelasi positif yang signifikan (p<0,001) antara CPOT dan RASS pada pagi hari dengan tingkat korelasi sedang (r = 0,516) dan arah korelasi positif. Tidak ada korelasi yang signifikan secara statistik yang ditemukan antara CPOT malam dan RASS malam. Diketahui bahwa perbedaan nilai CPOT pagi dan RASS pagi dan sore hari signifikan secara statistik (p<0,05), tetapi pada CPOT malam hari tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara kelompok dosis. Diketahui ditemukan perbedaan nilai CPOT pagi pada Golongan 2 dengan 3 (p<0,001) dan Golongan 1 dengan Golongan 3 (p<0,001). Pada pagi hari ditemukan nilai RASS pada Kelompok 2 dengan 3 (<0,001) dan Kelompok 1 dengan Kelompok 3 (<0,001). Pada malam hari RASS, perbedaan signifikan ditemukan pada Kelompok 2 dan Kelompok 3 (p = 0,037).

    Kesimpulan: Terdapat korelasi yang signifikan (p<0,001) antara nyeri dan agitasi pada pasien yang diintubasi di ICU Rumah Sakit Umum Adam Malik dengan tingkat korelasi sedang. CPOT dianggap memiliki manfaat untuk digunakan di ICU.

    Kata kunci: agitasi, nyeri, ICU, RASS, dan CPOT

  • Biomarker of Post-COVID-19 Lung Fibrosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies
    Vol 11 No 1 (2024)

    Biomarker of Post-COVID-19 Lung Fibrosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies

    Gede Ari Mahendra Mardaningrat1*, Putu Andrika2, Isabella Soerjanto Putri1, I Putu Hendri Aryadi1

    1 Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

    2 Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Internal Medicine, Udayana University/Prof. dr. I.G.N.G Ngoerah Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

     

    Abstract

    Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) labeled COVID-19 as a pandemic. On January 7, 2024, an estimated 774,075,242 confirmed cases of COVID-19 had occurred, resulting in 7,012,986 deaths. Pulmonary fibrosis is commonly observed as a consequence of COVID-19 infection, with a reported prevalence of up to 83.3% in individuals who have recovered from the disease. Pulmonary fibrosis that develops after a COVID-19 infection arises from the immune system's reaction to the virus, resulting in inflammation and lung damage.

    Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to determine the laboratory biomarker findings in patients with post-COVID-19 lung fibrosis.

    Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis adhering to the PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. We conducted a literature search on PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from January 1, 2020, to January 31, 2024.

    Results: Nine eligible studies, including 1,406 patients, were identified. The research results showed that several biomarkers had statistically significant values such as lymphocytes (MD: -0.35; 95% CI: -0.49; -0.21), CRP (MD: 40.73; 95% CI: 27.78; 53.69), D-dimer (MD: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.18; 1.34), lactate (MD: 38.43; 95% CI: 19.73; 57.13), and interleukin-6 (MD: 16.97; 95% CI: 2.57; 31.37). Meanwhile, for biomarkers such as white blood cells (MD: 0.14; 95% CI: -0.54; 0.81) and neutrophils (MD: 3.71; 95% CI: -3.80; 11.23), the values were not statistically significant for the occurrence of lung fibrosis.

    Conclusion: The diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis is generally established using biopsy or CT scans. However, in some hospitals with limitations on healthcare resources and equipment such as CT scans, these biomarkers can be used in diagnosing pulmonary fibrosis, especially in patients after experiencing COVID-19 infection.

     

    Keywords: Biomarker, COVID-19, Lung Fibrosis, Sars-Cov2

  • FACTORS CORRELATED WITH INCREMENTAL SHUTTLE WALK TEST DISTANCE IN SEDENTARY HEALTHY ADULTS
    Vol 11 No 1 (2024)

    FACTORS CORRELATED WITH INCREMENTAL SHUTTLE WALK TEST DISTANCE IN SEDENTARY HEALTHY ADULTS

     

    Astrid Priscilla Amanda1, Nury Nusdwinuringtyas1, Tresia Fransiska Ulianna Tambunan1, Dewi Friska2

    1Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital,

    Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia

    2Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia

     

     

    Abstract

    Background: In carrying out daily activities, it is influenced by a person’s physical fitness. A person’s functional capacity can be assessed by exercise testing distance. One of the exercise tests that currently being applicated nowadays is incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT). There are various factors that affect cardiorespiratory fitness, as well as demographic and anthropometric characteristics such as age, gender, body height, and body weight. This study focused on demographic and anthropometric factors.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the factors that correlate with ISWT distance in sedentary healthy adults

    Material and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study conducted on 85 subjects. Subjects performed ISWT twice, with the greatest distance was included in analysis. The independent variables (age, gender, body height, body weight) were analyzed using bivariate analysis to see the correlation with ISWT distance. Furthermore, multivariate analysis was done to see the most influential variable.

    Results: Sixty women were participated in this study. Among four variables, multivariate analysis showed gender, body height, and body weight correlated with ISWT distance (p<0,05)

    Conclusion: Gender, body height, and body weight correlated with ISWT distance in sedentary healthy adults.

     

    Keywords: Incremental shuttle walk test, distance, sedentary, healthy, field test

  • Low Alveolar Macrophages Function, Low BALF IL-6 Level and High BALF CD4 Cell Count is Associated with Successful Extubation and Survival in Severe Pneumonia Patients
    Vol 11 No 1 (2024)

    Low Alveolar Macrophages Function, Low BALF IL-6 Level and High BALF CD4 Cell Count is Associated with Successful Extubation and Survival in Severe Pneumonia Patients: Prospective Cohort Study

     

    Gurmeet Singh1,2, Cleopas Martin Rumende1, Iris Rengganis3, Zulkifli Amin1, Tonny Loho4, Emmy Hermiyanti Pranggono5, Kuntjoro Harimurti6, Heri Wibowo7, Nova Bornida Fauzi1, Sudirman Fakhruddin Masse1, Laila Fakhriyatuz Zakiyah1

     

    1Division Respirology and Critical Illness, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia – Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    2Doctorate Program Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    3Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    4Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia – Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    5Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Dr Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia.

    6Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia – Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    7Head of Integrated Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

  • A case of concurrent tuberculous pleural effusion and peritonitis
    Vol 10 No 2 (2023)

    A case of concurrent tuberculous pleural effusion and peritonitis

    Vanya Utami Tedhy1 , Nurhidayat Mohammad1, Lie Khie Chen2, Mira Yulianti3
    1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia
    2Division of Tropical Disease and Infection, Department of Internal Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
    3Division of Respirology and Critical Illness, Department of Internal Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
    Introduction: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis accounted for about 16% of 7.5 million tuberculosis cases worldwide in 2019 with lymph nodes, pleura, and gastrointestinal system as its most common sites of infection.
    Case description: A 36 year-old female patient presented with dyspnea and abdominal distention due to unilateral pleural effusion and ascites. She had accompanying symptoms of weight loss and night sweat since 6 months prior to her presentation. The patient’s medical history was unremarkable, but she had positive contact with tuberculosis patients. Diagnostic approach was taken. Both pleural fluid and ascitic fluid were analysed, revealing exudative fluid with lymphocyte predominance. ADA for both pleural and ascitic fluid was elevated. Abdominal CT scan showed para-aortic lymphadenopathy, omental thickening, and complex ascites. Pleural fluid culture for Mycobacterium was positive for M. tuberculosis. Diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion and peritonitis was made and anti-tuberculous treatment was initiated.
    Conclusion: The variable manifestation of extrapulmonary TB can make diagnosis difficult, but this diagnosis should always be considered especially in the setting of high TB prevalence. Confirmatory diagnosis with microbiological examination should always be attempted, but clinical feature highly suspicious of TB supported with biological marker can aid in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB.
    Keywords: tuberculous pleural effusion, tuberculous peritonitis, extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    ABSTRA CT
    Introduction: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis accounted for about 16% of 7.5 million tuberculosis cases worldwide in 2019 with lymph nodes, pleura, and gastrointestinal system as its most common sites of infection.
    Case description: A 36 year-old female patient presented with dyspnea and abdominal distention due to unilateral pleural effusion and ascites. She had accompanying symptoms of weight loss and night sweat since 6 months prior to her presentation. The patient’s medical history was unremarkable, but she had positive contact with tuberculosis patients. Diagnostic approach was taken. Both pleural fluid and ascitic fluid were analysed, revealing exudative fluid with lymphocyte predominance. ADA for both pleural and ascitic fluid was elevated. Abdominal CT scan showed para-aortic lymphadenopathy, omental thickening, and complex ascites. Pleural fluid culture for Mycobacterium was positive for M. tuberculosis. Diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion and peritonitis was made and anti-tuberculous treatment was initiated.
    Conclusion: The variable manifestation of extrapulmonary TB can make diagnosis difficult, but this diagnosis should always be considered especially in the setting of high TB prevalence. Confirmatory diagnosis with microbiological examination should always be attempted, but clinical feature highly suspicious of TB supported with biological marker can aid in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB.
    Keywords: tuberculous pleural effusion, tuberculous peritonitis, extrapulmonary tuberculosis

  • Seorang laki laki 49 tahun dengan TB monoresisten INH
    Vol 10 No 2 (2023)

    Seorang Laki-Laki 49 Tahun Dengan Tuberkulos Monoresisten Isoniazid (Hr-TB) : Kasus Pertama  Hr-TB di RSUP dr.Kariadi Semarang

    Arif Wicaksana1, Fathur Nur Kholis2, Banteng Hanang Wibisono2
    1Resident of Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University
    2 Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine,
    Diponegoro University
    Introduction : Drug Resistance Tuberculosis still become one of biggest burden on Global TB Control. Isoniazid Resistance Tuberculosis (Hr-TB) is one form of Drug Resistance TB. Although Hr-TB cases is commonly found worldwide, yet this case is the first case to be reported in Kariadi Hospital Semarang.
    Case Illustration : A 49-year-old male come with productive cough, sub-febris fever and weight loss within 1 month with history of Complete Drug Sensitive TB treatment 10 years ago. Patient had decreasing of vesicular sound and crackles in lower part of right lung. On chest radiographic evaluation found consolidation on lower base of right lung and image of tuberculosis. Sputum evaluation found Acid-fast Bacteria with Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) detected M. Tuberculosis with rifampicin sensitive, Line Probe Assay (LPA) stated resistance of Low Dose and High Dose Isoniazid. Patient was given treatment regimen of 6RHZE-Lfx. Evaluation was done in second month of treatment that given no identification of Acid-fast bacteria, improvement on chest radiographic, and bodyweight.
    Discussion : Hr-TB was found in 156 countries from 2003 until 2017, prevalence of Hr-TB is 7.6% of Newly Diagnosed TB and 11.4% of patient TB on treatment. Mechanism of resistance in Hr-TB are identified the mutation of katG ang inhA that decrease the antimicrobial function of Isoniazid. Diagnostic of Hr-TB based on WHO guideline is using NAAT and LPA to rule out resistance of INH and other line of regimen. WHO 2017 recommendation for Hr-TB treatment is RHZE-Lfx for 6 months. Addition of Fluoroquinolone to the regimen for Hr-TB strengthen treatment regimens since bactericidal effect of Isoniazid replaced by Lfx and became core drug for Drug Resistance TB. Adding Lfx shows improvement on results, and there is no evidence of including Isoniazid on regimen giving poor outcome on therapy.
    Conclusion : Hr-Tb need to be identified on high-risk group to have proper diagnosis and therapy and give better prognosis and improve TB elimination.
    Keyword : Tuberculosis, Isoniazid, Resistance
    ABSTRAK
    Pendahuluan : Tuberkulosis resisten obat masih menjadi salah satu permasalahn pada ELiminasi TB secara global. Tuberkulosis mnoresisten isoniazid (Hr-TB) adalah salah satu bentuk TB Resisten Obat. Walaupun kasus Hr-TB banyak ditemukan secara global, tetapu kasus ini adalah kasus pertama yang dilaporkan di RSUP dr. Kariadi Semarang
    Ilustrasi Kasus : Seorang laki-laki 49 tahun dating dengan batuk produktif, demam sub febris dan penurnan berat badan dalam 1 bulan dengan Riwayat pengobatan TB Sesitif Obat lengkap 10 tahun yang lalu. Pada pasien ditemukan penurunan suara vesikuler pada dan ronki kasar pada basal paru kanan. Pada pemeriksaan ronsen thoraks didapatkan konsolidasi pada basal paru kanan dan gambaran yang mendukun tuberculosis. Pada pemeriksaan dahak ditemukan BTA dan TCM mendeteksi M. Tuberkulosis dengan sensitive rifampisin. PEmeriksaan Line Probe Assay (LPA) menyatakan resisten dari Isoniazid dosis rendah dan dosis tinggi. Pasien diberikan regimen pengobatan ^RHZE-Lfx. Evaluasi dilakukan pada bulan kedua dari pengobatan dan didapatkan BTA negative dan perbaikan pada ronsen thorakas dan berat badan.
    Diskusi : Hr-TB ditemukan pada 156 negara dari 2003 hingga 2017, prevalensi dari Hr-TB adalah 7.6% dari TB kasus baru dan 11.4% pada pasien yang sedang pengobatan TB. MEkanisme reistensi dari Hr-TB diidentifikasi pada mutasi gen katG dan inhA yang menurunkan fungsi antimicrobial dari Isoniazid. Diagnosis dari Hr-TB berdasarkan Guideline WHO menggunakan TCM dan LPAuntuk menemukan adanya resistensi Isoniazid dan regimen lain. Rekomendasi WHO 2017 untuk pengobatan Hr-TB adalah RHZE-Lfx untuk 6 bulan. Penambahan FLuoroquinolon pada regimen untuk Hr-TB memperkuat efek bakterisidal dan menggantikan efek bakterisidal dari Isoniazid dan menjadi core drug untuk TB Resisten Obat. PEnambahan Lfx menunjukan perbaikan pada hasil dan melibatkan Isoniazid pada terapi tidak membuktikan perburukan luaran dari terapi.
    Kesimpulan : Hr-TB perlu diidentifikasi pada kelompok resiko tinggi dan mendapatkan diagnosis dan tatalaksana yang tetap untuk mendapatkan prognosis yang lebih baik dan meningkatkan angka eliminasi TB.
    Kata Kunci : Tuberkulosis, Isoniazid, Resitensi

  • Hubungan Penyakit Komorbid dan Faktor Prognostik dengan Mortalitas pada Pasien COVID-19 Critical ill Bulan Juni - Desember 2021 di Ruang Intensive Care RSUP Prof. DR. I.G.N.G Ngoerah Denpasar
    Vol 10 No 2 (2023)

    Hubungan Penyakit Komorbid dan Faktor Prognostik dengan Mortalitas pada Pasien COVID-19 Critical ill Bulan Juni - Desember 2021 di Ruang Intensive Care RSUP Prof. DR. I.G.N.G Ngoerah Denpasar

    Ni Wayan Eka Satyawati1, Putu Andrika2
    1Program Studi Spesialis Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana/RSUP Prof. Dr. I.G.N.G. Ngoerah Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia
    2Staf Divisi Pulmonologi dan Penyakit Kritis, Departemen/KSM Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana/ RSUP Prof. Dr. I.G.N.G. Ngoerah Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia


    Background : Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2). The spread of COVID-19 occurs globally and designated as a pandemic with clinical manifestations of COVID-19 mainly affect the respiratory system. COVID-19 there is often an increase in inflammatory response, thrombosis, coagulopathy, and the presence of comorbid chronic diseases which is associated with increased degree of disease severity, morbidity and mortality. In this study, aimed that there will be a relationship between the presence of comorbid diseases (Diabetes Mellitus, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease) as well as prognostic factors (platelet levels, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), procalcitonin and D-dimer) with mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Prof. Dr. I.G.N.G. Ngoerah Hospital Denpasar.
    Methods : This research is an analytical study with a retrospective approach using secondary data from medical records with a purposive sampling method. The population was all medical record data for critically ill COVID-19 patients in the ICU Prof. Dr. I.G.N.G. Ngoerah Hospital Denpasar period June - December 2021 as many as 397 patients. The analysis performed was univariate and bivariate analysis with the Chi-Square statistical test using the SPSS 26.0 application for windows.
    Results : In this study, based on data from patients critical ill period June - December 2021 were treated in the ICU Prof. Dr. I.G.N.G Ngoerah Hospital Denpasar obtained that the predominant age was 45-59 years for 214 patients (53.9%), with a mortality rate of 133 patients (50.6%). The gender factor was more in males, 229 patients (57.7%) with a mortality rate of 154 patients (58.6%) The bivariate test results found no significant relationship between age and mortality and between gender and mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients, with a p-value of 0.148 and 0.62. In the comorbid factor data, more patients with hypertension were found, namely 154 patients (38.8%), while type II DM was 141 patients (35.5%) and chronic kidney disease 84 patients (21.2%). Based on the results of the bivariate test, there was no significant association with mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients with comorbid factors, with p-values of 0.31 and 0.67, respectively. Whereas in the comorbid factors of chronic kidney disease, the results of bivariate tests found a significant relationship with mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients, p-value 0.03. In terms of platelet levels, there were more platelets with normal platelet levels, namely 308 patients (77.6%) with bivariate test results, there was no significant relationship with mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients, p-value 0.23. The factor of NLR levels was higher with an increase in NLR in 365 patients (91.9%), procalcitonin levels was higher with increased procalcitonin in 283 patients (71.3%), D-dimer levels with increased D-dimer levels in 370 patients (93.2%), with the results of bivariate tests there is a significant relationship with mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients, p-value 0.001 for NLR, p-value 0.000 for procalsitonin and p-value 0.013 for D-dimer.
    Conclusion : In this study it was found that the age and gender factors did not have a significant relationship with mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients who were treated in the June-December 2021 period at Prof. Dr. IGNG Ngoerah Denpasar. While the comorbid factors studied were mostly hypertension, followed by type II DM and chronic kidney disease. However, comorbid chronic kidney disease has a significant relationship with mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients. As for the levels of routine investigations carried out in patients with COVID-19, they are a complete blood count (in this study including NLR and platelet values) as well as procalcitonin and D-dimer levels. In this study it was found that elevated NLR, procalcitonin and D-dimer levels had a significant relationship with mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients.
    Keyword : COVID-19 critical ill, comorbid, D-Dimer, procalcitonin

  • Diagnostic Accuracy and Prediction of COVID-19 Outcome Using Artificial Intelligence Based on Radiological Data, Clinical and Laboratory Parameter at Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta
    Vol 10 No 2 (2023)

    Diagnostic Accuracy and Prediction of COVID-19 Outcome Using Artificial Intelligence Based on Radiological Data, Clinical and Laboratory Parameter at Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta

    Harik Firman Thahadian 1 Ika Trisnawati1 Eko Budiono1 Bambang Sigit Riyanto 1 Heni Retnowulan1 Nur Rahmi Ananda1 Sarah Ulfa 1 Tani Prima Auladina1 Imam Manggalya Adhikara 1 Sumardi
    1 Department of Internal Medicine of Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta
    Introduction: The application of the “color heat-map” method through identifying and analyzing chest X-ray images transferred into AI (artificial intelligence) to generate scores. The aim of this research to was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of artificial intelligence scores of Chest X-Ray for predicting the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients and establishing a scoring system using predictor variables based on AI scoring data based on chest X-rays, clinical parameters, and laboratories of COVID-19 patients.
    Methods: A retrospective study collected data from hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, between 2020 and 2022. The data collected is clinical, laboratory parameters, patient outcomes, and values from AI Chest X-Ray readings. Artificial intelligence was used to detect radiographic abnormalities using CAD4COVID-Xray software (Thirona, Nijmegen, Netherlands). Receiver operator curve (ROC) to evaluate the predictive value of the AI probability score and AI Affected Lung Area score. Multiple logistic regression analysis selected some variables to develop the scoring model.
    Results: Four hundred forty-nine (449) patients were included in the study: 237 males (52,8%), median age 56 years (IQR = 45-65). ROC analysis shows that the AI probability score (AUC = 0.875, CI 95% 0.801-0.948) and AI ALA score (AUC = 0.836, CI 95% 0.766-0.906) have sufficient discrimination ability to determine the degree of disease severity of COVID-19 confirmed subjects. Multiple logistic regression analysis from clinical, laboratory, and clinical outcomes showed that this scoring system uses seven variables (5 clinical and two laboratory variables) and has a good prognostic ability to predict the severity of COVID-19 patients. Based on the stratification of scoring results, we found that the scoring value of low-risk patients (1-2 points) had a mortality proportion of 7.8.%, moderate risk ((3-5) points) had a mortality proportion of 38.7%, and high-risk ((6-9) points) had a mortality proportion of 76.9%.
    Discussion: Using an AI-based score derived from radiographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters may be beneficial to estimate prognosis in confirmed COVID-19 patients.

  • Timoma dengan Sindroma Vena Cava Superior
    Vol 10 No 2 (2023)

    Thymoma Presenting as Superior Vena Cavaa Syndrome
    Putri Indah Permata1, Fauzar2, Roza Kurniati2 Eifel Faheri3
    1. Peserta Program Pendidikan Dokter Spesialis Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas,
    RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang, Indonesia
    2. Divisi Pulmonologi, Program Studi Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang, Indonesia
    3. Divisi Hematologi Onkologi Medik, Program Studi Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas
    RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang, Indonesia
    Pendahuluan
    Timoma adalah neoplasma yang jarang terjadi yang berasal dari sel epitel timus dengan prevalensi 0,5-1,5% dari semua keganasan di Amerika Serikat. Pada 2018-2023 ditemukan 20 kasus pasien timoma yang dirawat di RSUP M Djamil. Gejala klinis dapat berupa nyeri dada, dispnea, batuk, atau sindrom vena kava superior akibat efek pendesakan pada organ yang berdekatan.
    Ilustrasi Kasus
    Laki-laki, 28 tahun dirawat di Bagian Penyakit Dalam RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang mengeluhkan sesak nafas yang hebat sejak 3 hari sebelum masuk RS disertai dengan bengkak pada leher, wajah, dan tangan kanan. Pemeriksaan fisik didapatkan keadaan umum berat, takipneu, dan pemberton sign positif. Pada pemeriksaan laboratorium didapatkan hasil dalam batas normal. Pemeriksaan CT Scan thoraks dengan kontras didapatkan tumor mediastinum anterior yang menekan vena kava superior. Dilakukan pemberian kortikosteroid dan radioterapi cito untuk keadaan emergency sindroma vena kava superior (SVKS). Setelah sesak berkurang, dilakukan pemeriksaan transthoracic needle aspiration (TTNA) dan trans thoracic biopsy (TTB) dengan hasil timoma. Selanjutnya pada pasien dilakukan kemoterapi sebagai terapi primer timoma karena massa tumor yang non-resectable.
    Diskusi
    Kasus ini menarik karena keberhasilan terapi pada pasien. Radioterapi dapat memberikan perbaikan klinis pada pasien SVKS kemudian dilakukan kemoterapi menggunakan regimen cisplatin, doxorubicin, siklofosfamid karena tumor non-resectable. Pada follow up setelah kemoterapi didapatkan perbaikan klinis dan pengecilan massa tumor pada pasien secara radiologis.
    Kesimpulan
    Timoma adalah tumor yang jarang dengan mortalitas tinggi. Pengobatan timoma harus dilakukan oleh tim multidisiplin untuk menentukan strategi perawatan yang tepat. Pilihan pengobatan kemoterapi memberikan perbaikan klinis pada pasien dengan massa yang non-resectable
    Kata kunci: timoma, SVKS, radioterapi, kemoterapi

  • Predictors of Hair Zinc Deficiency and Its Association with the Severity of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital
    Vol 11 No 1 (2024)

    Predictors of Hair Zinc Deficiency and Its Association with the Severity of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital

     

    Rosatya Imanuela1, Gurmeet Singh2, Nurul Ratna Mutu Manikam3, Kuntjoro Harimurti1, Juferdy Kurniawan1, Cleopas Martin Rumende2, Sally Aman Nasution1, Noto Dwimartutie1

     

    1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital

    2Divison of Respirology and Critical Care, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital

    3Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital

     

    Corresponding Author:

    Gurmeet Singh, MD, PhD

    Division of Respirology and Critical Care, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital

    Jalan Diponegoro 71, Central Jakarta, Indonesia

    Email: gurmeetsingh10@yahoo.com

     

    Abstract

     

    Background: Zinc deficiency can cause immune disorders that can increase the severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). One of the potential biomarkers of zinc deficiency is hair zinc levels because they are more stable. However, because zinc levels are not routinely tested, clinical predictors are needed to determine the profile of patients at risk of zinc deficiency, especially in CAP patients.

    Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study using primary data. Ninety-three adult patients who were hospitalized with CAP at Cipto Mangunkusomo National General Hospital in July-August 2023 were included in this study. Sampling used the consecutive sampling method. Hair zinc levels were analyzed using spectrophotometry. Zinc intake during the last month was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Medical history was obtained from hospital medical records and laboratory examinations. Bivariate tests using chi-square tests were performed on age, sex, nutritional status, diabetes mellitus, malabsorption, chronic kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, HIV/AIDS, and malignancies with hair zinc deficiency. Identification of predictors for hair zinc deficiency was carried out using a multivariate logistic regression test. A bivariate test was also performed using chi-square to assess the association between hair zinc deficiency and the severity of CAP, and then a multivariate analysis was performed on confounding variables.

    Results: 10.75% of patients experienced hair zinc deficiency. Predictors for hair zinc deficiency in community-acquired pneumonia patients were diabetes mellitus (PR 4.800; 95% CI 1.339 – 17.199) and HIV/AIDS status (PR 6.000; 95% CI 1.356 – 26.544). There was no significant relationship between hair zinc deficiency and the severity of CAP.

    Conclusion: The prevalence of hair zinc deficiency in this study population was 10.75%. Predictors for hair zinc deficiency in community-acquired pneumonia patients are diabetes mellitus and HIV/AIDS. However, there was no association between hair zinc deficiency and the severity of CAP in this study population.

     

    Keywords: predictors, hair zinc deficiency, community-acquired pneumonia

  • PREDICTOR FACTORS FOR LENGTH OF STAY BASED ON SERUM BIOMARKERS IN MODERATE TO SEVERE COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA
    Vol 11 No 1 (2024)

    PREDICTOR FACTORS FOR LENGTH OF STAY BASED ON SERUM BIOMARKERS IN MODERATE TO SEVERE COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA PATIENTS

    Efata Polii1, Gurmeet Singh2, Yulia Rosa Saharman3, Jufferdy Kurniawan4

    Martin Rumende2, Arif Mansjoer5, Hamzah Shatri6, Irsan Hasan7

     

    1Departement of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    2Division of Respirology and Critical Care, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    3Departement of Clinic Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    5Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    6Division of Psychosomatic and Palliative, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    7Division of Hepatobilier, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

     

    Corresponding Author: Efata Polii, 085256183214, efata.md@gmail.com

     

    ABSTRAK

    Latar belakang : Pneumonia komunitas (PK) merupakan penyakit dengan insiden morbiditas dan mortalitas global yang tinggi. Serum biomarker dapat digunakan sebagai prediktor untuk lama rawat pada pasien PK. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mendapat sistem skoring menggunakan beberapa serum biomarker seperti prokalsitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), leukosit, asam laktat, D-dimer dan albumin terhadap lama rawat pasien PK sedang berat.

    Metode : Studi ini menggunakan desain kohort prospektif pasien PK sedang berat yang dirawat di IGD/ICU/HCU RSUPN dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo periode Mei 2022 s/d Juli 2023. Variabel-variabel prediktor lama rawat pasien PK sedang berat didapatkan dari hasil analisis multivariat dengan regresi logistik.

    Hasil : Dari total 360 subjek yang memiliki lama rawat >14 hari sebanyak 204 subjek (56,67%) dan ≤14 hari sebanyak 156 subjek (44,44%). Variabel prediktor yang secara konsisten mempengaruhi lama rawat adalah asam laktat dengan RR 1,305 (IK 95% 1,097 – 1,551, p=0,003) dan albumin dengan RR 2,234 (IK 95% 1,164– 2,156, p=0,003). Analisis kurva ROC menunjukkan kemampuan prediksi lemah (AUC=0,629). Performa kalibrasi dengan uji Hosmer-Lemeshow test menunjukkan validasi baik (0,562). Biomarker lain yang dianggap signifikan dalam analisis bivariat yaitu prokalsitonin dengan RR 1,481 (IK 95% 1,121-1,954, p=0,006) dan CRP dengan RR 2,465 (IK 95% 1,141-5,326). Leukosit tidak dinilai signifikan sebagai biomarker PK sedang berat (p = 0,947).

    Kesimpulan : Terdapat hubungan antara prokalsitonin, CRP, asam laktat dan albumin  dengan lama rawat pasien PK sedang berat.  Tidak terdapat model skoring lama rawat pasien PK sedang berat.

     

    Kata Kunci : pneumonia, lama rawat, serum biomarker

  • Comparison of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Cancer Patients with Dyspnea
    Vol 10 No 2 (2023)

    Comparison of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Cancer Patients with Dyspnea: Evidence-Based Case Report

    Ni Putu Menganti Harum Putrinata1 Gurmeet Singh2
    1Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia
    2Pulmonology Division, Internal Medicine Department, Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia

    Abstract

    Background: The role of nutritional support for cancer patients in palliative care still become a controversial topic, because an ambiguity in choosing between enteral and parenteral treatment were still found in clinical practice, yet a comparison of effectiveness between enteral and parenteral nutrition in cancer patients with dyspnea still remain scarce.

    Objective: The purpose of this evidence-based case report is to identify the effectiveness of enteral nutrition compared to parenteral nutrition in adult patients with cancer and dyspnea.

    Methods: Literature searching were performed on Pubmed, Cochrane, and Google Scholar database to obtain RCT studies. Searches were made with keyword “enteral nutrition”, “parenteral nutrition”, “dyspnea” “cancer” and “dyspnea score”. Selecting the studies were further based on exclusion and inclusion criteria by results, title, abstract, and full-text screening.

    Result: Two studies were found to be relevant according to the criteria. These studies showed that enteral nutrition showed more effectiveness compared to parenteral nutrition in reducing dyspnea score.  Study by Cotogni P et al showed enteral nutrition was more significant in giving lower Modified Borg Dyspnea Score [p =0.01], similarly to the results of study by Kao et al [p=0.05]. However, included study patients is different than patients in clinical practice settings. Therefore, there is a consideration regarding the applicability.

    Conclusion: Based on two articles that have been reviewed, enteral nutrition has a positive effect on reducing Modified Borg Dyspnea Score in patients with cancer compared to parenteral nutrition.

     

    Keywords: enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, dyspnea score, cancer

  • COMPARING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FIXED-DOSE COMBINATIONS AND SEPA­RATE-TABLET REGIMENS ON 2-MONTH PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS SPUTUM CONVERSION
    Vol 10 No 2 (2023)

    COMPARING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FIXED-DOSE COMBINATIONS AND SEPARATE-TABLET REGIMENS ON 2-MONTH PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS SPUTUM CONVERSION
    Ichsan Fauzi Triyoga1, Mira Yuliarti2
    1Program Studi Profesi Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia
    2Divisi Pulmonologi, Departemen Gastroenterohepatobilier, Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Nasional Cipto
    Mangunkusumo, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia

    ABSTRACT

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death amongst other non-communicable diseases, accounting for up to 845 thousand cases in 2020 in Indonesia alone. Currently, the WHO recommends the use of anti-tuberculosis fixed dose combinations (FDCs) for treating lung TB. However, before the existence of FDCs, patients rely on the use of anti-TB separate tablets (STs). Both forms offer excellent effectiveness and could be measured objectively through bacterial smear conversion, but different dosages and compliance in each individual may alter the outcomes they offer.
    Methods: 5 online databases (Cochrane Central Registers of Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, Embase Classics, MEDLINE(R) ALL, and Pubmed) were used in finding potential studies. Studies were appraised using the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) Tool, specifically in the validity, importance, and applicability of the studies.
    Result: 24 articles were acquired from literature search, and 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed. All studies found statistically insignificant results between FDCs and STs in 2-month sputum smear conversion. The negative percentage of patients with a negative 2-month sputum conversion result using FDCs ranges from 88% - 96% and those using STs ranges from 89% - 96%. Relative risk results for all studies are within the 95% CI range, hence precision of results are more certain.
    Conclusion: In conclusion, all studies reported FDCs nor STs to have significant effectiveness difference in 2-month sputum smear conversion rate. Future studies should consider doing individual analysis of these forms of anti-TB treatment on bacterial smear conversion with factors that could influence conversion time.
    Keywords: fixed dose combinations, separate tablets, 2-month sputum smear conversion, lung tuberculosis

  • Frailty As A Predictor of Mortality Among Elderly Patients With Pneumonia
    Vol 10 No 2 (2023)

    Frailty As A Predictor of Mortality Among Elderly Patients With Pneumonia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    RA Tuty Kuswardhani1, I Desak Putu Agung Krisdanti2, Christina Permata Shalim3

     

    1Division  of  Geriatric  Medicine,  Department  of  Internal  Medicine,  Faculty  of  Medicine,  Udayana University/Prof Dr. I.G.N.G. Ngoerah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia

    2Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University/Udayana University Hospital, Bali, Indonesia

    3Siloam Hospitals Kebon Jeruk, Jakarta, Indonesia

    ABSTRACT

    Introduction: Pneumonia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among elderly patients.
    Assessing the prognostic factors associated with pneumonia outcomes is crucial for clinical decision-making. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of frailty on mortality in elderly patients with pneumonia.
    Methods: We performed a systematic search on the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Science Direct up to June 12th, 2023. Studies reporting the association between frailty and mortality in elderly patients with pneumonia were included. Quality assessment of the included studies was appraised using a Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models.
    Results: Seven studies involving a total of 376,170 elderly pneumonia patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results demonstrated a significant association between frailty and mortality in this population (pooled OR = 2.76, 95% CI: 2.22-3.44; p<0.00001). Frailty was also significantly associated with prolonged hospitalization (pooled OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.90-3.96; p<0.00001).
    Conclusion: Frailty is significantly associated with increased mortality and prolonged
    hospitalization in elderly patients with pneumonia.
    Keywords: elderly, frailty, mortality, pneumonia

  • SUSPECT HEPATOPLEURAL FISTEL INITIATED BY LUNG ABCESS BECOMES HYDROPNEUMOTHORAX WITH THE COMPLICATION OF LIVER ABCESS
    Vol 10 No 2 (2023)

    SUSPECT HEPATOPLEURAL FISTEL INITIATED BY LUNG ABCESS BECOMES
    HYDROPNEUMOTHORAX WITH THE COMPLICATION OF LIVER ABCESS
    Sri Indah Indriani1*, Indra Yovi1, Aulia Rezha Yomitra1, Elvando Tunggul Maulite Simatupang1, Heri Krisnata Ginting2, Hariadi Hatta3
    1Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Riau University - Arifin Achmad General Hospital Pekanbaru
    2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Riau University - Arifin Achmad General Hospital Pekanbaru 3Department of Thoracic Cardiovascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Riau University - Arifin Achmad General Hospital Pekanbaru

    ABSTRACT
    Background: A liver abscess is an inflamed liver lesion that can migrate into the pleural cavity and cause lung abscess and empyema. Hepatopleura fistulas are one of the reasons why cancer might spread to the pleural cavity.
    Case: A 25-year-old man complains of sudden shortness of breath, exacerbated by strenuous activity. An x-ray was performed showing a lung abscess. after 6 days, a repeat x-ray showed a hydropneumothorax, and a Water Sealed Drainage was performed. An abdomen ultrasound was carried out and found a picture of a liver abscess. In the patient’s condition, repeated abdominal ultrasounds were done to determine the size of the liver abscess and repeated chest X-rays were done to examine the WSD. No hepatopleural fistula was discovered in this patient, and the liver abscess was less than 5 cm, therefore drainage was not necessary. Antibiotics were administered to the patient. The patient was treated for 40 days and it was found that the lungs had not expanded an open pleural window was performed.
    Conclusion: This patient was then consulted for thoracic and cardiovascular surgery for further management of the lungs that had not yet expanded and fluid production was still ongoing, a decision was made with further intervention.
    Keywords: Hydropneumothorax, Lung Abscess, Liver Abscess

  • THE USE OF INDWELLING PLEURAL CATHETER FOR MALIGNANT PLEURAL EFFUSION
    Vol 10 No 2 (2023)

    THE USE OF INDWELLING PLEURAL CATHETER
    FOR MALIGNANT PLEURAL EFFUSION
    Sri Indah Indriani*, Indra Yovi, Elvando Tunggul Mauliate Simatupang
    Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Riau University, Pekanbaru, Riau

    ABSTRACT

    Malignant Pleural Effusion (MPE) is one of the metastatic processes that occur due to lung cancer. MPE condition can be used as one of the parameters to assess the degree of disease and prognosis of lung cancer patients. Shortness of breath is the most common symptom experienced by lung cancer patients. Indwelling Pleural Catheter (IPC) are recommended as effective management for shortness of breath in patients. The use of IPC also has a pleurodesis effect on problems in the pleura. Palliative therapy with the use of IPC can reduce the length of hospitalization and drainage treatment can be done on an outpatient basis. The development of IPC selection as the first line in MPE cases is also supported by several recent studies so its use is more recommended to be applied to MPE. Some other studies mentioned that IPC is rarely used due to limitations for installation techniques and long-term care is needed after IPC installation.
    Keywords: Procedure, Indwelling Pleural Catheter, Malignant Pleural Effusion

  • HYPOXEMIA DURING BRONCHOSCOPY PROCEDURE: WHAT WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND AND HOW TO ANTICIPATE IT
    Vol 10 No 2 (2023)

    HYPOXEMIA DURING BRONCHOSCOPY PROCEDURE:
    WHAT WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND AND HOW TO ANTICIPATE IT
    Sri Indah Indriani*, Chyntia Triana Putri, Elvando Tunggul Mauliate Simatupang,
    Arya Marganda Simanjuntak, Adelia Pratiwi
    Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine,
    Riau University, Pekanbaru, Riau

    ABSTRACT

    By inserting a Diagnostic Sign (bronchoscope) into the airway, bronchoscopy is an invasive medical treatment that allows tracheobronchial viewing in order to evaluate pathological abnormalities that develop in the lung. The importance of bronchoscopy is growing as lung disease cases become more complex and the demand for minimally invasive diagnostic methods rises. Use of bronchoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool are its two primary indications. With a low morbidity rate (0.1–2.5%) and a very low fatality rate (0.05%), bronchoscopy is a surgery that is generally considered to be safe. The risk of consequences from bronchoscopy still exists, one of which being hypoxemia. One of the most frequent side effects brought on by several variables is hypoxemia. Due to the use of sedation during bronchoscopy, hypoxemia frequently happens. This situation is often transient and is reversible. The operator must take into account the possibility of hypoxemia while doing the process in order to know when to stop. Hypoxemia should be anticipated, therefore monitoring and oxygen supplementation should be priorities during the process.
    Keywords: Hypoxemia, Complications, Bronchoscopy

  • Sub-spesialis Konsultan Pulmonologi dan Medik Kritis
    Vol 10 No 1 (2023)

     EDITORIAL

    Sub-spesialis Konsultan Pulmonologi dan Medik Kritis

    Seorang Konsultan Pulmonologj dan Medik Kritis (KPMK) merupakan seorang yang telah menjadi spesialis penyakit dalam dan melajutkan pendidikan subspesialis/konsultan di bidang pulmonologi. Seorang KPMK adalah anggota Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Penyakit Dalam Indonesia (PAPDI) dan juga anggota komunitas seminat Perhimpunan Respirologi Indonesia (PERPARI). Subspesialis ini memiliki kompetensi yang lebih dalam dan dapat menangani kasus-kasus yang lebih kompleks atau yang membutuhkan tindakan di bidang Respirologi dan Penyakit Kritis. Adapun kompetensi SpPD-KMPK yaitu respirologi, intervensi pulmonologi, ventilasi mekanik (di HCU/ICU), dan juga penyakit kritis. Sekitar tahun 1952, ilmu penyakit kritis/medik kritis baru dikembangkan sebagai suatu ilmu tersendiri.

     

  • Dampak Keterlambatan Pengembalian Rekam Medis Pasien Rawat Inap Terhadap Pelaporan RS Dan Pengajuan Klaim BPJS Kesehatan Di RSU Ganesha Kabupaten Gianyar
    Vol 10 No 1 (2023)

     Dampak Keterlambatan Pengembalian Rekam Medis Pasien Rawat Inap Terhadap Pelaporan RS Dan Pengajuan Klaim BPJS Kesehatan Di RSU Ganesha Kabupaten Gianyar

    I Gusti Ayu Dina Lasmi Putri1, Bambang Hadi Kartiko, 2, Dylla Hanggaeni Dyah Puspaningrum 3

    Program Studi Perekam dan Informasi Kesehatan, Universitas Dhyana Pura1,2,3

    ABSTRACT

     In accordance with the standard operating procedures set by the Ganesha General Hospital, the late return of inpatient medical records is defined as the return of medical records from the inpatient room to the medical record unit beyond the time limit of 3 x 24 hours from the time of collection. The aim of this research is to determine the impact of late returns on home reporting of pain and claims from the Social Security Administration (BPJS).The research is based on a descriptive qualitative analysis of 224 overdue medical records and a sample of 10 officers at the Medical Record Installation. returned in July-December 2022. The results of the analysis showed that data from July 2022 through December 2022 showed that out of 510 inpatient medical records, 138 (27%) had medical records. returned not timely before the 25th of the current month, and there are 86 (17%) medical records that were returned not on time after the 25th of the current month. The impact of the late return of inpatient medical records is the delay in reporting RL 4a and RL.5.3 to the Department of Central Health, the increased workload of reporting officers, and the decreased ability of hospital management to make informed decisions. Aside from that, it has an effect on the time it takes for BPJS insurance documents to be sent in with claims, on the time it takes to give health services to patients, especially for repeat visits, on the amount of work that medical record keepers have to do, and on the amount of money that hospitals make. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that: late reports on hospital activities (RL 4a and RL.5.3) to the Department of Central Health; the increased workload of reporting officers and medical record officers; and delays in providing BPJS insurance documents have had an impact on hospital income.

    Keywords: Impact of late return of Medical Records, Hospital Reporting RL4a and RL.5.3, BPJS Claims

     

     

  • Acute Digitalis Toxicity presenting as Bradycardia in patient with Atrial Fibrillation with Heart Failure
    Vol 10 No 1 (2023)

    Acute Digitalis Toxicity presenting as Bradycardia in patient with Atrial Fibrillation with Heart Failure         

     RaymondPranata1,Emir Yonas2, Veresa Chintya3

    1General Practitioner, Tabanan General Hospital, Tabanan, Bali, Indonesia 2Faculty of Medicine, YARSI University, Jakarta, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia 3General Practitioner, Sanjiwani General Hospital, Gianyar, Bali, Indonesia

    ABSTRACT

     

    INTRODUCTION: Digitalis is used for atrial fibrillation to reduce the ventricular rate and has narrow therapeuticwindow. Mortality associated with unrecognized digitalis intoxication is high and often unacknowledged.

    CASE ILLUSTRATION:A86 years old male presented with fatigue since 1 day before admission. PMH of AF, HHD, CHF and CKD.PE: BP 90/60, HR: 48 bpm, RR: 20x/minute. ECG: AF SVR 40-50x/minute ‘reverse tick sign’ ST depression, LAD. Lab: Hyperkalemia andeGFR 22.92 mL/min. Previous echocardiography: Grade III diastolic dysfunction + LVH. IV hydration was given using normal saline 200 mL initially, insulin and glucose were administered to reduce potassium level.

    DISCUSSION:Digitalis cause an increase in vagal activity and prolong conduction in the AV node, excessive effect in this patient cause reduced ventricular rate. ST-segment depression resembling a ‘reverse tick’ signified digitalis effect not necessarily toxicity. Digitalis toxicity can emerge even when the serum digitalis concentration is within the therapeutic range.The narrow therapeutic index of and pharmacokinetic changes associated with aging increases the risk of toxicity. The elimination of digitalis is mainly by renal clearance and is prolonged inCKD. This patient was an elderly and has eGFR of 22.92 mL/min, hence in high risk of digoxin toxicity.Ideally, digitalis Fab fragments is indicated for a K + level greater than 5 mmol/L. CONCLUSION:Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and digoxin is widely used as rate control especially in those with heart failure.Digitalistoxicity is important to recognize and receive prompt treatment should toxicity arises.

    Keywords:digitalis, digoxin, toxicity, atrial fibrillation

     

     

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