• A Case of Spontaneous Hemorrhagic Transformation in a patient with Cardioembolic Stroke due to Atrial Fibrillation
    Vol 10 No 1 (2023)

    A Case of Spontaneous Hemorrhagic Transformation in a patient with Cardioembolic Stroke due to Atrial Fibrillation

    Raymond Pranata1, Veresa Chintya2, Emir Yonas3

    1General Practitioner, Tabanan General Hospital, Tabanan, Bali, Indonesia 2General Practitioner, Sanjiwani General Hospital, Gianyar, Bali, Indonesia 3Faculty of Medicine, YARSI University, Jakarta, Indonesia

    ABSTRACT

    INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) refers to aspectrum of ischemia-related brain hemorrhage and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality of acute ischemic stroke.

    CASE ILLUSTRATION: An 83 years old female presented with loss of consciousness 30 minutes before admission. Her past medcal history of congestive heart failure, hypertension, atrial fibrillation (AF), and stroke. Physical examination showed GCS 7 andBP 190/100 mmHg. Electrocardiography showed Atrial Fibrillation NormoVentricular Response and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. Laboratory examination showed thrombocytopenia, hypokalemia,and INR of 1,8. National Institutes of Health Stroke ScaleScore: 16CHA₂ DS₂ -VASc: 7, HAS-BLED: 4.Thorax Xray revealed cardiomegaly and Thorax CT Scan depicted characteristic of hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarct. The patient was treated with hemorrhagic stroke protocol and mannitol.

    DISCUSSION: Atrial fibrillation is associated with greater volumes of more severe baseline hypoperfusion, leading to higher infarct growth, more frequent severe HT and worse stroke outcomes. This patient has massive infarction andAFwhich were independent predictors of HT risk. In patients with AF probability of bleeding was about 95% if the volume of infarction edema >10 cm3.Hemorrhagic transformations may occur in patients with acute ischemic stroke who received thrombolytic, however, it may also occur spontaneously in 12.3 % of patients with ischemic stroke. Warfarin has been associated with increased HT riskirrespective of INR and aPTT values. Hemorrhage risk stratification score might be used to predict HT in acute ischemic stroke.Anticoagulant may be reinitiated after 4-8 weeks. Long-term anticoagulation with NOAC (similar efficacy with lower bleeding risk compared to VKA) or Left atrial appendage occlusion.

    CONCLUSION: One-third of ischemic stroke patient may experience hemorrhagic transformation.Physician must strike a balance between stroke recurrence and HT.

    Keywords:Atrial Fibrillation, Stroke, Anticoagulant

     

     

  • DIFFICULTY IN CONTROLLING MALIGNANT PLEURAL EFFUSIONN
    Vol 10 No 1 (2023)

    Difficulty in Controlling Malignant Pleural Effusion

    Ignatius B Prasetya1, Eric D Tenda2
    1Department of Internal Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
    2Division of Respirology and Critical Care, Department of Internal Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Cipto
    Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

    ABSTRACT

    Malignant pleural effusion is the second leading cause of exudative pleural effusions, usually recurrent and represents advanced malignant disease. Treatment options were restricted to symptomatic purpose in order to increase functional capacity and quality of life. In this case, a 35-years old woman with history of breast cancer was admitted with worsening dyspnea since 4 months prior. The patient was told that there was fluid in her left lung. She underwent thoracocentesis twice, pleuroscopy and pleurodesis with little success. The treatment option switches to placement of pleural catheter to control the effusion. This option, however, may leave the patient and caregivers with routine task of aspiration of the fluid and with greater risk of infection.
    Key words: Malignant pleural effusion

  • The Role of Chronic Inflammation in the Development of Depression in COPD Patients
    Vol 10 No 1 (2023)

    The Role of Chronic Inflammation in the Development of Depression in COPD Patients

    Vania Tryanni 1 , Hamzah Shatri1,3, Dika Sinulingga1, Vinandia Irvianita1, Edward Faisal1, Rudi Putranto1, Gurmeet Singh2, Ceva W. Pitoyo2
    1 Psychosomatic and Palliative Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    2 Respirology and Critical Care Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
    3 Clinical Epidemiology in Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia- Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

    ABSTRACT

    COPD is one of the most prevalent disease and the prevalence is still increasing. Depression is one of the most prevalent comorbid found in COPD and associated with increase mortality and reduced quality of life. The linked between booth of them can’t be fully elucidated. One of the theories is chronic inflammation. Increase inflammatory state is associated development of depression to some pathway, and there is direct link between serotonin-inflammation. COPD is a well-known inflammatory state with same increasing inflammatory state. There are also similar characteristics between depression with inflammatory stated and depression in COPD such as atypical symptom and resistance to therapy. Studies also proved that there were increase in cytokine especially IL-6 , IL-2 and IFN gamma in COPD -Depression.
    Keyword: COPD, Depression, Chronic Inflammation

  • GAMBARAN EFEK SAMPING PANDUAN STANDAR JANGKA PENDEK DAN PANJANG PADA TUBERKULOSIS RESISTEN OBAT
    Vol 10 No 1 (2023)

    GAMBARAN EFEK SAMPING PANDUAN STANDAR JANGKA PENDEK DAN PANJANG PADA TUBERKULOSIS RESISTEN OBAT
    Annisa Nurfaujiah1, Ferdy Ferdian2, Basti Andriyoko3
    1Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Padjadjaran
    2Divisi Respirologi, Departemen Penyakit Dalam, Rumah Sakit Umum Hasan sadikin, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung.
    3Departemen Patologi Klinik, Rumah Sakit Umum Hasan sadikin, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung

    ABSTRACT

    Drug resistant TB treatment requires more drugs, longer duration and more side effects. In 2020 WHO introduced an all-oral combination with a higher success rate but with additional side effect challenges. It is a descriptive observational study with a cross-sectional study design. The data used are medical records of patients aged over 18 years who have been declared complete treatment of TB-RO in January 2020 – June 2022 with an oral regimen of short-term and long-term treatment. Abnormal data results at the initial examination before starting treatment and incomplete or missing medical record data were not included in the study. The number of samples is determined by the total sampling method. The result from 69 patients who received short-term treatment combinations, nausea was the most common side effect (76.19%), followed by hyperuricemia (69.8%), vomit (55.56%), and QTc interval prolongation (44.44%). Out of 16 patients who received a combination of long-term treatment, the highest incidence was nausea (75%), arthralgia (62.5%) rash, itching, and headache (56.25%).The incidence of gastrointestinal disturbances, QTc prolongation, skin discoloration, hyperuricemia, hepatotoxicity, chest pain and tightness, and psychiatric disorders was higher in the short-term group. Meanwhile in the long-term regimen, tachycardia, itching and rash, arthralgia, visual and hearing impairment, neurological disorders, and neuropathy. Peripheral anemia and anemia were more common.
    Keywords: Side Effects; Drug Resistant Tuberculosis; STR; LTR

  • TRAKEOSTOMI DILATASIONAL PERKUTAN PADA PASIEN PERAWATAN INTENSIF
    Vol 10 No 1 (2023)

    TRAKEOSTOMI DILATASIONAL PERKUTAN PADA PASIEN PERAWATAN INTENSIF
    Harris Soetanto, Gurmeet Singh
    Internal Medicine Department, Universitas Indonesia, Faculty of Medicine. Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

  • PROGNOSTIC NUTRITIONAL INDEX (PNI) AS A PROGNOSTIC FACTOR IN STAGE IV LUNG ADENOCARCINOMA
    Vol 10 No 1 (2023)

    PROGNOSTIC NUTRITIONAL INDEX (PNI) AS A PROGNOSTIC FACTOR IN STAGE IV LUNG ADENOCARCINOMA
    Subroto 1, Eko Budiono 2, Sumardi 2
    1Resident of Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine Faculty of Medicine Public Health and Nursing Gadjah Mada University/Dr. Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta
    2Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine Faculty of Medicine Public Health and Nursing Gadjah Mada University/Dr .Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta

     

  • Studi Kualitatif Risiko Keselamatan Dan Kesehatan Kerja Dengan Metode Job Safety Analysis Pada Tenaga Perawat
    Vol 10 No 1 (2023)


    STUDI KUALITATIF RISIKO KESELAMATAN DAN KESEHATAN KERJA DENGAN METODE JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS PADA TENAGA PERAWAT

    Sarah Linda Ginting1, Egi Dahan1, Andi Alim1, Asriani Minarti S2
    1Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Pejuang Republik Indonesia
    2Program Megister Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Muslim Indonesia

    ABSTRACT
    Occupational safety and health in hospitals as health services is an important thing to consider. Nurses as one of the medical personnel in the hospital have risks and hazards that are quite vulnerable in every process of their work. Data from the PPI (Infection Prevention and Control) committee at DR Tadjuddin Chalid Makassar Hospital found 16 cases of needle stick accidents in the last 5 years. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of occupational safety and health risks that can occur in nurses in the emergency room unit of DR Tadjuddin Chalid Makassar Hospital. The research design used is qualitative with the approach method, namely risk management AS/NZS 4360: 2004 with the instruments of interview guidelines, observation, camera for documentation and JSA (Job Safety Analysis) to identify the risks and hazards of nurses’ work. Risk assessment using the semi-quantitative method of W. T. Fine from AS/NZS 4360:2004. The results of this study indicate that the highest risk in the emergency room with a value of 300 (Priority 1) is at the stage of anamnase and TTV (vital signs) of patients there is a risk of droplet contact hazards infected with infectious diseases of patients and in the installation of infusions there is a risk of needle stick hazards. The conclusion from the research results obtained is that technical improvements are needed, it is hoped that better supervision is expected in the implementation of SOPs for nursing actions and the active role of K3RS in identifying more stages of nurses’ work in the hospital.
    Keywords: OHS, Nurses, JSA (Job Safety Analysis), AS/NZS 4360:2004

  • Pneumonectomy in Congenital Lobar Emphysema
    Vol 10 No 1 (2023)

    Pneumonectomy in Congenital Lobar Emphysema: A Case Report

     Susan Hendriarini Mety, I Putu Kokohana Arisutawan, Muhammad Aris Furqon

    Staff of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery Department, Persahabatan Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

     

    Abstract

    Background: Congenital lobar emphysema is a rare congenital disease which caused by anomaly on bronchial cartilage development. Usually, it is limited to a single lobe. It could be treated conservatively or surgically depend on the clinical condition. In this case report we would like to discuss the management strategy for congenital lobar emphysema that affected the whole lung in 17 days old baby.

    Case presentation: The patient was admitted to NICU due to respiratory distress. The patient had a difficulty to wean from ventilator. Radiologic examination revealed the whole left hemithorax is filled by multiple bullae which push mediastinal organ contralaterally. Intraoperatively, we found the whole left lung is emphysematous and there is PDA which is not detected preoperatively. Surgeon decided to do pneumonectomy and PDA ligation. After operation, patient recovered on NICU slowly and discharged from hospital 34 days post operation.

    Discussion : our case of congenital lobar emphysema which affect one side of lung is a rare case. Our decision to do pneumonectomy was challenging post operatively.

    Conclusion: Multidisciplinary team should be involved in treatment of congenital lobar emphysema. Team should be prepared for prolonged intensive care if decision to do lung resection is chosen.

    Keywords: Congenital lobar emphysema, pneumonectomy, neonates

  • Dampak Ketidaklengkapan Komponen Analisis Kuantitatif Pada Rekam Medis Pasien Rawat Inap Terhadap Tertib Administrasi Rekam Medis Di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Sanjiwani Kabupaten Gianyar
    Vol 9 No 2 (2022)

    Dampak Ketidaklengkapan Komponen Analisis Kuantitatif Pada Rekam Medis Pasien Rawat Inap Terhadap Tertib Administrasi Rekam Medis Di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Sanjiwani Kabupaten Gianyar

    The Impact of Incomplete Components of Quantitative Analysis on Inpatient Medical Records on the Orderly Administration of Medical Records at sanjiwani regional general hospital, Gianyar regency

    Desak Made Ayu Diah Ardiantari1, Dr. dr. Bambang Hadi Kartiko, 2, I Gusti Ngurah Manik Nugraha 3

    Program Studi Perekam dan Informasi Kesehatan, Universitas Dhyana Pura1,2,3

    Email : ayudiahardiantari26@gmail.com

     

    Abstract

                     Based on the observations of patient safety incident reports in 2021, there were 67 incidents and KTD reports, bpjs health cost claims in the first quarter of 2022 were returned totaling 81. The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of the incompleteness of the quantitative analysis component of the medical records of inpatients on the orderly administration of medical records at Sanjiwani Hospital, Gianyar Regency. The research design is descriptive qualitative analytics, with a sample of 8 officers in the Medical Record Installation.The results of the study obtained the impact of incompleteness of the components of the nitatitative analysis of medical records of inpatients, including the impact of incompleteness of identification reviews, namely: delays in the administrative service process for patients, difficulty placing forms on medical record bendels, difficulty distinguishing patients from one another, can result in drug dosage errors, and difficulty determining the ownership of medical records, the impact of incompleteness of important report reviews,  namely: the delay in providing the BPJS claim submission file, and the obstruction of bpjs claim submission, the impact of incomplete review of authentication, namely: medical records do not have legal validity, difficulties of the hospital if there is a lawsuit and there are difficulties if there is an error in the administration of drugs or drug allergies to patients, and the impact of incomplete review documentation, namely: delay in making KLPCM reports, and hampered submission of insurance claims.Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that it was: errors in identifying patients, delays in submitting BPJS claims, medical records could not be used as evidence of defense or legal protection, and the emergence of errors by medical personnel in reading patient medical records.

    Keywords: Impact of incompleteness of quantitative components of medical records, orderly administration of medical records.

     

  • Perkembangan Precision Medicine di Indonesia
    Vol 10 No 1 (2023)

    Perkembangan Precision Medicine di Indonesia

     

    Dr. dr. Telly Kamelia, Sp.PD-KP, FINASIM1,  dr. Nurul Amelia Rahayu Putri2

    1Pulmonology and Critical Care Division. Internal Medicine Department. Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia. Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital

    2 Research Assistant. Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia

    Jakarta, Indonesia

     

    ABSTRAK

    Latar Belakang dan Tujuan: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia (Kemenkes RI) melakukan pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi terutama di bidang genomika biomedis untuk mendukung terapi dan pengobatan yang presisi (precision medicine) dengan memperhatikan keanekaragaman genomika di Indonesia. Precision medicine merupakan sebuah inisiatif untuk mengedepankan pengolahan big data genomika sebagai acuan pelayanan kesehatan yang terintegrasi pada berbagai tingkat kaskade molekuler. Aktualisasi dari precision medicine di Indonesia adalah Biomedical Genome-based Science Initiative (BGSi). Artikel ini mengulas tentang perkembangan precision medicine, terutama di Indonesia.

    Metode: Studi ini adalah review literatur. Terdapat 17 (tujuh belas) artikel yang didapatkan dari basis data daring di PubMed, grey literature dari situs web Kementerian Kesehatan, kebijakan yang telah terbit, pedoman nasional, serta Google Scholar.

    Hasil: Hasil dari berbagai studi menunjukkan perkembangan precision medicine sebagai kosmologi kedokteran baru. Negara-negara maju di dunia mulai mengembangkan fondasi ekosistem bioteknologi kesehatan baru serta kebijakan terkait untuk mendukung precision medicine, termasuk Indonesia melalui Biomedical Genome-based Science Initiative (BGSi).

    Kesimpulan: Sebagai kosmologi kedokteran baru, precision medicine menjembatani kosmologi kedokteran sebelumnya. Indonesia meluncurkan Biomedical Genome-based Science Initiative (BGSi) sebagai pendukung program pelayanan kesehatan berbasis data genomik. Terdapat berbagai tantangan dalam pengembangan precision medicine. Maka dari itu, diperlukan kerjasama antar pihak, baik pusat peneliti, pembuat kebijakan, politisi, klinisi, perusahaan obat, dan masyarakat, untuk mendukung keberhasilan BGSi di Indonesia.

    Kata Kunci: precision medicine, big data, Biomedical Genome-based Science Initiative (BGSi), Indonesia

     

  • DIAGNOSTIK DAN MANAJEMEN TERKINI GANGGUAN PERNAPASAN SAAT TIDUR (Editorial)
    Vol 9 No 2 (2022)

    DIAGNOSTIK DAN MANAJEMEN TERKINI GANGGUAN PERNAPASAN SAAT TIDUR Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) merupakan salah satu jenis gangguan napas saat tidur yang sering terjadi pada 14% pria dan 5% wanita. Penyakit OSA terjadi akibat episode berulang hambatan jalan napas atas, baik secara total (apnea) maupun parsial (hipopnea). OSA berhubungan erat dengan obesitas, hipertensi, gangguan fungsi dan struktur jantung dan vaskular, dan diabetes melitus. Diagnosis dapat ditegakan menggunakan hasil polisomnografi (PSG) yaitu: jika terdapat 5 atau lebih kejadian obstruksi pernapasan (apnea obstruktif dan campuran, hipopnea, atau respiratory effort-related arousals/RERA) per jam tidur pada pasien dengan satu atau lebih gejala: rasa kantuk berlebihan, tidur non-restoratif, kelelahan, atau muncul gejala insomnia; bangun tidur dengan tahanan napas, terengah-engah, atau tersedak; kebiasaan mendengkur, gangguan napas, atau keduanya yang disadari oleh orang lain yang tidur bersama atau orang lain; hipertensi, gangguan mood, gangguan kognitif, penyakit arteri koroner, stroke, gagal jantung kongesti, atrial fibrilasi, atau diabetes melitus tipe 2. Penyakit OSA merupakan penyakit kronik yang membutuhkan manajemen jangka panjang dan melibatkan multidisiplin. Pasien yang terdiagnosis OSA perlu diberikan edukasi komprehensif terkait penyakit, faktor risiko, gejala, dan komplikasi dari OSA. Modifikasi gaya hidup perlu dilakukan untuk mengontrol faktor risiko yang dapat memperberat gejala OSA.

  • PROFIL KARAKTERISTIK KLINIS PASIEN COVID-19 VARIAN OMICRON PADA RUMAH SAKIT DARURAT COVID-19 WISMA ATLET KEMAYORAN
    Vol 9 No 2 (2022)

    PROFIL KARAKTERISTIK KLINIS PASIEN COVID-19 VARIAN OMICRON PADA RUMAH SAKIT DARURAT COVID-19 WISMA ATLET KEMAYORAN

    Background : According to WHO, B.1.1529 or omicron has been found as a variant of SARS-CoV-2 with high num-ber of mutations and is easily transmitted. In a month, 108 countries have reported 151.368 cases. This study aims to determine the clinical characteristics of patients with confirmed Covid-19 Omicron variant being treated at Wisma Atlet Kemayoran Hospital. Methods : This research method is descriptive using retrospective data. Secondary data was taken from medical re-cords of patients with Covid-19 Omicron variant who were hospitalized on December 16 – January 16 2022 at Wisma Atlet Kemayoran Hospital. Inclusion criteria was all patients with confirmed mild to moderate COVID-19 Omicron variant. The data were processed by statistical software and analyzed univariately. Results : We reported a total of 227 patients in this study. Majority of samples were women (53.1%), the age average was 19 – 39 years (56.6%), 96.1% had no comorbidities. The majority are foreign travelers (88.2%), with traveler from Asia as much as 70.6%. A total of 96.1% have never had Covid-19 before. As many as 82% have received 2 doses of the vaccine. 56.6% of patients were asymptomatic with symptomatic patients mostly complaint of cough (31.1%). The lowest Hb value was 5.60, the highest leukocyte was 14.39μL, the highest SGOT was 208 U/L, the highest SGPT was 406 U/L and the highest D-Dimer was 8290 ng/mL. A total of 82.5% did not have lung abnormalities seen on x-ray. Conclusion : Covid-19 Omicron variant patients in this study are mostly female, with transmission from foreign trav-elers, the majority are asymptomatic and without pulmonary abnormalities on x-ray, and mostly do not need antibiotic nor antiviral therapy.
    Keyword: Clinical characteristic; Covid-19; Omicron

  • Penatalaksanaan TB Diseminata dan Pneumonia Pada Pasien Gangguan Hati Kronis
    Vol 9 No 2 (2022)

    Penatalaksanaan TB Diseminata dan Pneumonia Pada Pasien Gangguan Hati Kronis : Sebuah Laporan Kasus

    Iis Widiayati1, Jesica Supriadi1, Nenny Agustanti2, Pandji Irani Fianza3

    1Departemen Penyakit Dalam, Rumah Sakit Umum Hasan Sadikin, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

    2Divisi Gastroenterohepatologi, Departemen Penyakit Dalam, Rumah Sakit Umum Hasan Sadikin, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

    3 Divisi Hematoonkologi Medik, Departemen Penyakit Dalam, Rumah Sakit Umum Hasan Sadikin, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

     

    ABSTRAK

         Frekuensi tuberkulosis meningkat empat belas kali lipat pada pasien dengan penyakit hati kronis dan sirosis hati (SH). Pemilihan obat anti tuberkulosis (OAT) pada pasien SH perlu memperhatikan derajat fibrosis hati. Pneumonia merupakan penyebab kedua tersering yang menyebabkan Acute on Chronic Liver Failure (ACLF) setelah Secondary Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP). CLIF Consortium Organ Failure Score  (CLIF-SOFA) dapat dipakai untuk memprediksi mortalitas SH dengan pneumonia.

         Seorang laki-laki berusia 53 tahun datang ke instalasi gawat darurat (IGD) dengan keluhan buang air besar hitam. Keluhan disertai adanya batuk lama, penurunan berat badan, demam, serta keringat malam. Pasien sudah diketahui menderita hepatitis B dan mendapatkan terapi Tenofovir sejak April 2022. Pasien didiagnosa dengan TB diseminata (TB milier dan peritonitis TB) dan terkonfirmasi dengan ditemukannya Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) pada  hasil Tes Cepat Molekuler (TCM) sputum dan cairan asites. Pasien diterapi dengan regimen RHES. Pada hari perawatan kelima pasien didiagnosa dengan Hospital Acquired Pneumonia dan mendapatkan terapi Ceftazidime dan Levofloxacine. Pasien meninggal pada hari perawatan kesembilan karena repiratory failure.

         Pasien dengan Child-Turcotte-Pugh score  13 sebaiknya pasien diterapi dengan menggunakan obat yang tidak hepatotoksik selama 18-24 bulan. Pasien mengalami pneumonia pada hari perawatan kelima dengan skor CLIF-SOFA 10. Pneumonia mencetuskan terjadinya ACLF pada pasien. Semakin tinggi skor CLIF-SOFA, maka akan meningkatkan mortalitas pasien SH dengan pneumonia.

         Pemilihan OAT pada pasien dengan sirosis hati harus disesuaikan dengan derajat fibrosis hati. Deteksi infeksi pneumonia dan perhitungan CLIF-SOFA pada pasien SH dalam perawatan harus dilakukan sedini mungkin karena pneumonia merupakan penyebab ACLF kedua tersering dan meningkatkan mortalitas pada pasien sirosis hati.

    Kata kunci: TB diseminata, pneumonia, sirosis hepatis, obat anti tuberkulosis

    ABSTRACT

         Tuberculosis incidence increases fourteenfold in chronic liver disease and cirrhotic patients. The degree of liver fibrosis must be considered when selecting anti-tuberculosis drugs in cirrhotic patients. After Secondary Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP), Pneumonia is the second most common cause of Acute on Chronic Liver Failure (ACLF). CLIF Consortium Organ Failure Score (CLIF-SOFA) can predict mortality in cirrhotic and pneumonia patients.

         A 53-year-old man arrived at the emergency department complaining of black stools, a long cough, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. The patient had been treated for hepatitis B with Tenofovir since April 2022. He was diagnosed with disseminated tuberculosis (miliary and peritonitis tuberculosis). His sputum and ascites fluid contained Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). He received RHES regimen treatment. He was diagnosed with Hospital Acquired Pneumonia on the fifth day and was given Ceftazidime and Levofloxacine. He died on the ninth day due to respiratory failure.

         Patients with a Child-Turcotte-Pugh score of 13 should be treated for 18-24 months with non-hepatotoxic drugs. On the fifth day, the patient developed pneumonia, and his CLIF-SOFA score was 10. In this patient, pneumonia can trigger ACLF. The higher the CLIF-SOFA score, the greater the mortality in a cirrhotic patient with pneumonia.

         We must consider the degree of liver fibrosis when selecting anti-tuberculosis drugs for patients with liver cirrhosis. Early detection of pneumonia is critical and the calculation of CLIF-SOFA score in cirrhotic patients must be performed as early as possible because pneumonia is the second most common cause of ACLF and it might increase mortality risk in cirrhotic patients.

    Keywords: Disseminated TB, pneumonia, cirrhosis, anti-tuberculosis drugs

  • IMPLEMENTASI KEPERAWATAN POLA NAPAS TIDAK EFEKTIF PADA KASUS ASMA BRONKIAL
    Vol 9 No 2 (2022)

    IMPLEMENTASI KEPERAWATAN POLA NAPAS TIDAK EFEKTIF PADA KASUS ASMA BRONKIAL

     

    Lily Marleni1, Mardiah2, Lia Pitriani3

    1,2,3Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Siti Khadijah Palembang

    Email : lilyasheeqa@gmail.com

     

    Abstrack

     

    Asma adalah suatu keadaan dimana saluran napas mengalami penyempitan karena hiperaktivitas terhadap rangsangan tertentu, yang menyebaabkan peradangan/inflamasi, penyempitan ini bersipat sementara. Peradangan pada saluran pernapasan disebabkan oleh allergen, yang tampil dalam bentuk ingesta dimana allergen masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui mulut terutama makanan dan obat-obatan. Selain itu juga bisa dalam bentuk inhalan yaitu allergen yang masuk kedalam tubuh melalui hidung seperti debu atau polusi , bulu binatang, serbuk bunga yang menimbulkan gejala sesak napas, mengi, dada terasa nyeri,batuk. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan Asuhan keperawatan pola napas tidak efektif pada Tn.R dengan kasus Asma Bronkial. Waktu penelitian dilakukan pada tanggal 28 April 2022 di ruang rawat inap Rumah Sakit Bhayangkara M.Hasan Palembang. Metode penguumpulan data dilakukan dengan metode deskriftif dengan cara wawancara dan observasi. Hasil studi kasus pada Tn.R didapatkan pengkajian yaitu kesadaran conpos mentis, pasien tampak sesak, batuk dan mengi, tekanan darah 130/80 mmHg, nadi 80x/menit, Respiration rate 28x/ menit,dan suhu tubuh 36,5 OC. Diagnosa yang ditegakkan yaitu pola napas tidak efektif berhubungan dengan hambatan upaya napas.Adapun implementasi keperawatan yang dilakukan mengatur posisi semi flowler, memberikan O2,meng observasi tanda-tanda vital, memonitor kemampuan batuk efektif, memonitor pola napas, mengajarkan batuk efektif, mengajarkan relaksasi napas dlam, memberikan minum air hangat, dan menganjurkan pasien istirahat yang cukup..Evaluasi keperawatan dengan metode SOAP dengan masalah pla napas tidak efektif masalah teratasi. Dengan demikian diharapkan kepada pasien olahraga yang tidak berlebihan, hindari asap rokok,yang menyebabkan sesak napas dan batuk menjaga lingkuangan yang nyaman dan bersih

     

    Kata Kunci : Asma Bronkial,  Implementasi Keperawatan, Pola Napas Tidak Efektif

     

     

  • COVID-19 Coinfection and Vaccination Profile Amongst People with HIV/AIDS (PWHA) in Indonesia
    Vol 9 No 2 (2022)

    COVID-19 Coinfection and Vaccination Profile Amongst People with HIV/AIDS (PWHA) in Indonesia: a Preliminary Study

    Sasfia Candrianita1, Rudi Wisaksana1,2, Yovita Hartantri1,2, Uun Sumardi1,2, Susantina Prodjosoewojo1,2, Marita Restie Tiara1, Primal Sudjana1,2, Bachti Alisjahbana1,2

    1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran / Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia

    2Tropical Disease and Infection Division, Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran / Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia

     

    Abstract

    Introduction

                    COVID-19 pandemic that has been occurred for more than two years yields a huge impact for PWHA population. Due to their immunocompromised status, PWHA have greater risk of being coinfected with COVID-19. COVID-19 vaccine as a preventive way of SARS CoV-2 virus transmission has been administered for the PWHA, however the epidemiological studies remain limited.

    Method

                    This was the first cross-sectional study in Indonesia, analysing COVID-19 coinfection and vaccination coverage in the PWHA population. A total of 307 PWHA who came to the HIV Clinic, Hasan Sadikin General Hospital were included in this study. The data regarding social history, HIV medical history, comorbidity, as well as COVID-19 coinfection and vaccination was obtained from both anamnesis and medical record. The patients` sera were obtained for IgG and IgM SARS CoV-2 rapid test analyses. Analyses were conducted using SPSS version 20, utilising Chi-square test for descriptive analysis.

    Results

                    Three-hundred and seven PWHA from the total of 1971 patients in the HIV clinic during June 2021 – November 2021 period were included. The median age of the patient was 37 (35 – 38) years. Men dominated the PWHA population (230 people, 75%) with male have sex with male as the key population (100 people, 32.4%). On average, the PWHA were on the stadium I HIV (298 people, 96.4%), with 24.3% (75 people) had pulmonary TB coinfection and 7.1% (22 people) had extrapulmonary TB coinfection. Majority of the patients have CD4 > 200 (20.4%) and undetected viral load (13.9%). The patients consumed antiretroviral therapy daily (305 people, 98.7%). There were 13.6% (48 people) of PWHA with COVID-19 coinfection history. First-dose vaccination has been administered within 78.6% (246 people) PWHA, whereas there were 59.5% (188 people) PWHA who received second-dose vaccination. Rapid tests showed positive IgG SARS CoV-2 in 55% (170 people) PWHA, nevertheless IgM SARS CoV-2 was detected in 1.9% (6 people) PWHA. There was 61.3% seroconversion of the SARS CoV-2 IgG antibody following COVID-19 first-dose vaccination (p-value <0.05).

    Discussion

    Immunocompromised status of the PWHA renders the population towards vulnerability of having secondary infection. The COVID-19 infection risk in the PWHA population is somewhat similar to the general population. First-dose vaccination coverage in the PWHA impressively surpassed the national coverage target (>70%), though in the beginning of the pandemic there was hesitancy to complete the vaccination. Vaccination was significantly associated with seroconversion towards IgG SARS CoV-2 antibody in the PWHA population.

    Conclusion

    This was the first epidemiological study regarding COVID-19 coinfection and vaccination in the PWHA population in Indonesia. COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for the PWHA population.

    Keywords: Antibody, COVID-19, HIV, PWHA, Vaccine

     

     

  • Fall and Rise Phenomenon pada Tuberkulosis Paru Poliresisten dengan Intoleransi Rifampisin
    Vol 9 No 2 (2022)

    Fall and Rise Phenomenon pada Tuberkulosis Paru Poliresisten dengan Intoleransi Rifampisin: Sebuah Tantangan dalam Diagnostik dan Terapeutik

     

    Nabila Nauli Asriputri1, Naufal Fauzan Ihsan2, Arto Yuwono Soeroto3

     

    1Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran / RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin, Bandung

    2Tuberculosis Working Group, Pusat Riset Pengelolaan dan Pengendalian Penyakit Infeksi (PRP3I) Universitas Padjadjaran

    3Divisi Pulmonologi dan Respirasi Kritis, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran / RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin, Bandung 

    ABSTRAK

    Latar Belakang: Penanganan tuberkulosis (TB) yang tidak tepat dapat menyebabkan fall and rise phenomenon, yaitu peningkatan kembali jumlah bakteri Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) karena pengobatan tidak adekuat yang meningkatkan kemungkinan kekambuhan dan kekebalan obat. Penanganan semakin sulit dengan adanya intoleransi terhadap rifampisin.

    Laporan Kasus: Seorang wanita 43 tahun dengan riwayat pengobatan TB paru berulang dirujuk ke RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung karena diduga mengalami TB resisten obat (TB-RO). Pasien mempunyai riwayat pengobatan TB sejak tahun 2009 – 2022, namun keluhan terus berulang dan semakin memberat. Pemilihan regimen OAT menjadi semakin sulit karena adanya riwayat intoleransi terhadap rifampisin. Uji kepekaan obat fenotipik dan genotipik menunjukkan adanya resistensi isoniazid, ethambutol, pirazinamid, serta fluorokuinolon. Pengobatan TB diputuskan menggunakan regimen individual karena adanya poliresistensi.

    Diskusi: TB poliresisten merupakan kondisi dimana seseorang mengalami resistensi terhadap lebih dari satu OAT lini pertama selain isoniazid dan rifampisin secara bersamaan. Kondisi ini dapat dilatarbelakangi terjadinya fall and rise phenomenon, dimana pengobatan TB yang tidak adekuat dapat menurunkan jumlah kuman MTB di awal, namun organisme yang bertahan dapat berproliferasi dan bermutasi, sehingga meningkatkan risiko kekambuhan dan resistensi. Deteksi TB-RO dilakukan dengan uji kepekaan obat fenotipik dan genotipik. Akan tetapi, akses pemeriksaan ini masih terbatas sehingga diagnosis TB-RO masih menjadi tantangan. Penentuan regimen dipersulit dengan intoleransi rifampisin. Pada kasus ini, tatalaksana dengan regimen individual TB multi drug resistant (TB-MDR) dapat menjadi pilihan

    Kesimpulan: Anamnesis dan pemeriksaan fisik mendetail, serta akses pemeriksaan penunjang berperan penting pada diagnosis TB, terutama pada kasus kekambuhan berulang. Pemberian regimen pengobatan yang sesuai dengan panduan dapat mencegah terjadinya kegagalan dan resistensi.

     

    Kata Kunci: tuberkulosis, poliresisten, intoleransi, rifampisin

     

     

    ABSTRACT

    Introduction: Inadequate treatment of tuberculosis (TB) can result in a rise in the number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria, increasing the risk of recurrence and drug resistance. This phenomenon is known as the fall and rise phenomenon. Rifampicin intolerance makes treatment more challenging.

    Case Presentation: A 43-year-old woman with a history of recurrent treatment for TB was referred to Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung because of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) suspected. Despite receiving TB therapy from 2009 to 2022, the patient's problems continue to persist and worsen. A history of rifampicin intolerance makes selecting an OAT regimen more challenging. Phenotypic and genotypic drug sensitivity tests showed resistance to isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and fluoroquinolones. Treatment of TB was decided with individualized regimen due to polyresistance.

    Discussion: Polyresistant TB defined as a condition in which a person develops concurrent resistance to more than one first-line medication other than isoniazid and rifampin. This condition may be caused by the fall and rise phenomenon, wherein insufficient TB therapy may initially result in a reduction in the number of MTB germs, but the surviving organisms may then multiply and undergo mutations, raising the chance of recurrence and resistance. Phenotypic and genotypic drug sensitivity testing were used to detect DR-TB. However, since the access to this examination is still limited, the diagnosis of DR-TB is still difficult. Rifampicin intolerance makes choosing a therapy regimen more challenging. In this case, treatment with an individual regimen of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) may be an option.

    Conclusion: Detailed history and physical examination, as well as access to supporting examinations play  important roles in the diagnosis of TB, particularly in cases of repeated recurrence. Providing a treatment regimen that is in accordance with the guidelines can prevent failure and resistance.

     

    Keywords: tuberculosis, polyresistant, intolerance, rifampicin

     

     

  • HUBUNGAN OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA DAN COVID-19
    Vol 9 No 2 (2022)

    HUBUNGAN OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA DAN COVID-19

     

    Telly Kamelia, Jihaan Hafirain

    Divisi Pulmonologi dan Medik Kritis, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam

    Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia, RSUPN. Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, Jakarta

     

     

    ABSTRAK

    Pandemi Covid-19, infeksi saluran nafas yang disebabkan oleh virus SARS-CoV2, menyebabkan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi di seluruh dunia. World Health Organization (WHO) melaporkan lebih dari 533 juta kasus terkonfirmasi Covid, dengan 6,3 juta kematian di seluruh dunia.1  Di Indonesia, kasus Covid-19 sempat menurun di awal tahun 2022 namun akhir-akhir ini kembali meningkat. Berdasarkan laporan Kementrian Kesehatan RI, tedapat 6.668 kasus aktif di Indonesia dengan 1.173 kasus terkonfirmasi baru per tanggal 16 Juni 2022.2 Pasien terkonfirmasi Covid-19 memiliki derajat keparahan yang beragam, dari tidak bergejala, bergejala ringan, sedang, berat hingga kritis. Derajat keparahan ini dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, termasuk komorbid yang dimiliki pasien.

    Kata Kunci : Covid-19, SARS-CoV2

  • Analisis Pengaruh Ekspedisi Elektronik Berbasis Web Terhadap Waktu Penyediaan Rekam Medis Rawat Inap Pada Rumah Sakit Daerah Mangusada Kabupaten Badung
    Vol 9 No 2 (2022)

     Analysis Of The Effect Of Web-Based Electronic Expedition On The Time Of Availability Of Medical Records At Mangusada Regional Hospital, Badung Regency

     

    Ni Putu Dian Efriliana1, I Wayan Widi Karsana2, Rai Riska Resty Wasita3

    Program Studi Perekam dan Informasi Kesehatan, Universitas Dhyana Pura1,2,3

    Email : efriliana36@gmail.com

     

    Abstract

     

    Expeditions for borrowing and returning inpatient medical records at the Mangusada Regional Hospital are still carried out manually by writing in the expedition book. The use of manual expedition books has a risk, namely data can be lost, torn and data is difficult to find so that it affects the delay in patient service time and delays in providing medical records. The Standard Operating Procedure for providing medical records at the Mangusada Regional Hospital is adjusted to the Minimum Service Standard, which is 15 minutes. The research design used in this study is Pre-Experimental Design. The system development analysis method used is the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Usability test results obtained a percentage value of 80% which can be classified as "Good". The Mann Whitney test results get a significant value of 0.000 <0.05 which indicates the influence of web-based electronic expeditions on the time of providing inpatient medical records at the Mangusada Regional Hospital, Badung Regency. The conclusion obtained in this study is that there is an effect of web-based electronic expeditions on the time of providing inpatient medical records at the Mangusada Regional Hospital, Badung Regency with a significance value of 0.000 and the average time of providing inpatient medical records is 11 minutes.

     

    Keywords: Electronic Expedition, Provision of Medical Records, Hospitalization

  • Analisis Hubungan Ketidaklengkapan Formulir Asesmen Medis Awal Pasien Rawat Inap Terhadap Kejadian Nyaris Cedera (KNC) Di Rumah Sakit Daerah (RSD) Mangusada
    Vol 9 No 2 (2022)

    Analysis Of The Relationship Between Incompleteness Of The Initial Medical Assessment Form Of Inpatients To The Near-Injury Incidence In The Mangusada Regional Hospital

     

    Ni Putu Anggi Riyani1, Bambang Hadi Kartiko2, Dylla Hanggaeni Dyah Puspaningrum3

    Program Studi Perekam dan Informasi Kesehatan, Universitas Dhyana Pura1,2,3

    Email : ptanggiryn@gmail.com

     


    Abstract

     

    Patient safety incidents are events that happen to patients intentionally or not so that the condition can become a potential or result in injury to patients which include Near-Injury Incidence (KNC), Unexpected Incidence (KTD), Unscathed Incidence (KTC), Potential Injury Incidence (KPC) and Sentinel, where this patient safety incident is not allowed to occur in patients and should even be preventable because this has been categorized as a  officer discipline. Based on preliminary observations at Mangusada Hospital, there is an increase in KNC in 2021 compared to other patient safety incidents, namely KTD, KTC, KPC and Sentinel which have decreased every one year. In 2019 there were 41 cases, KNC in 2020 there were 68 cases of KNC and in 2021 it increased to 97 cases of KNC. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between the incompleteness of the initial medical assessment form of inpatients to KNC at Mangusada Hospital. The research design used is quantitative analytics. The study sample was an incomplete initial medical assessment form for inpatients as many as 120 in October - December 2021 with sampling using purposive sampling techniques. The instrument of this study is observation and checklist, using univariate and bivariate data analysis. The results of the study from 120 initial medical assessment forms of inpatients obtained incomplete identification reviews totaling 14 (11.7%), incomplete authentication reviews 23 (19.2%), incomplete important reporting reviews 66 (55%) and in incomplete documentation reviews 17 (14.2%). Based on the results of the chi-square test, it was found that the four reviews on the initial medical assessment form of inpatients had a significant relationship with the occurrence of KNC with a p-value of <0.005. The conclusion of this study is that there is a significant association of the incompleteness of the four reviews on the initial medical assessment form (identification review, authentification review, important reporting review and documenting review) to the occurrence of KNC with a p-value = 0.000.

    Keywords: Incomplete of Initial Medical Assessment Form, Near-Injury Incidence

  • Analisis Pengaruh Pelatihan Terminologi Dan Kode Penyebab Cedera Kecelakaan Transportasi Darat Terhadap Pelaporan Morbiditas Penyebab Cedera Pasien Rawat Inap Di Rumah Sakit Daerah Mangusada
    Vol 9 No 2 (2022)

    ANALISIS PENGARUH PELATIHAN TERMINOLOGI DAN KODE PENYEBAB CEDERA KECELAKAAN TRANSPORTASI DARAT TERHADAP PELAPORAN MORBIDITAS PENYEBAB CEDERA PASIEN RAWAT INAP DI RUMAH SAKIT   DAERAH MANGUSADA

     

    THE ANALYSIS OF EFFECT OF TERMINOLOGY TRAINING AND THE CODE FOR THE CAUSE OF INJURY TO LAND TRANSPORTATION ACCIDENT ON INJURY MORBIDITY REPORTS OF INPATIENTS AT THE MANGUSADA REGIONAL HOSPITAL

     

    Ni Putu Anggun Meilia Kusuma Dewi1, Rai Riska Resty Wasita2, Made Nyandra3

    Program Studi Perekam dan Informasi Kesehatan, Universitas Dhyana Pura1,2

    Program Studi Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Dhyana Pura3

    Email: putuanggun2505@gmail.com

     

    Abstract

     

    In the accuracy of reporting the morbidity that causes injury to patients in land transportation accidents, the process processing data in the patient's medical record is important. The results of a preliminary study on 50 medical records, the right terminology is 14, the right code is 14, the right morbidity report data is 14. The study aims to determine the effect of the terminology training and the code for the cause of injury to land transportation accident patients on the accuracy of the terminology, code, and data on morbidity reports. The research design was pre-experimental designs with one group pre-post test design. Data analysis using the Wilcoxon test. The research sample was 3 admins of inpatient installations and 50 medical records of inpatients in injuries cases of land transportation accident before and after the intervention. The results showed an increase after the intervention of terminology and code of causes of injury to patients in land transportation accidents. The accuracy of the previous terminology is 14 (28%) to 50 (100%) Wilcoxon test results ρ=0.000, the previous code accuracy is 14 (28%) to 50 (100%) Wilcoxon test results ρ=0.000, the accuracy of the previous morbidity report data is 14 (28 %) to 50 (100%) Wilcoxon test results ρ=0.000. Based on the results, it can be concluded that there was a significant effect after the intervention in the form of training in terminology and codes of causes of injury to patients in land transportation accidents on the accuracy of terminology, codes, and data on morbidity reports that cause land transportation accidents in inpatients at the Mangusada Regional Hospital.

     

    Keywords: Injury Case Terminology and Codes, Morbidity Reporting, Land Transport Accidents, Training

     

    Abstrak

     

    Dalam ketepatan pelaporan morbiditas penyebab cedera pasien kecelakaan transportasi darat proses pengolahan data dalam rekam medis pasien penting diperhatikan. Hasil studi pendahuluan pada 50 rekam medis, terminologi yang tepat 14, kode yang tepat 14, data laporan morbiditas yang tepat 14. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pelatihan terminologi dan kode penyebab cedera pasien kecelakaan transportasi darat terhadap ketepatan terminologi, kode, dan data laporan morbiditas. Rancangan penelitian adalah pre experimental designs dengan one group pre-post test design. Analisis data penelitian menggunakan uji wilcoxon. Sampel penelitian adalah 3 orang admin instalasi rawat inap dan 50 rekam medis pasien rawat inap kasus cedera kecelakaan transportasi darat sebelum dan setelah intervensi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan peningkatan setelah intervensi pelatihan terminologi dan kode penyebab cedera pasien kecelakaan transportasi darat. Ketepatan terminologi sebelumnya 14 (28%) menjadi 50 (100%) hasil uji wilcoxon ρ=0.000, ketepatan kode sebelumnya 14 (28%) menjadi 50 (100%) hasil uji wilcoxon ρ=0.000, ketepatan data laporan morbiditas sebelumnya 14 (28%) menjadi 50 (100%) hasil uji wilcoxon ρ=0.000. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh kesimpulan terdapat pengaruh signifikan setelah intervensi berupa pelatihan terminologi dan kode penyebab cedera pasien kecelakaan transportasi darat terhadap ketepatan terminologi, kode, data laporan morbiditas penyebab cedera.

     

    Kata Kunci: Terminologi dan Kode Kasus Cedera, Pelaporan Morbiditas, Kecelakaan Transportasi Darat, Pelatihan

     

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea Panduan Tatalaksana Diagnostik dan Manajemen Terkini
    Vol 9 No 1 (2022)

    Editorial

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea : Panduan Tatalaksana Diagnostik dan Manajemen Terkini Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) merupakan salah satu jenis gangguan napas saat tidur yang sering terjadi. Prevalensi OSA diperkirakan mencapai 14% pada pria dan 5% pada wanita. Penyakit OSA terjadi akibat episode berulang hambatan jalan napas atas, baik secara total (apnea) maupun parsial (hipopnea). Obstruksi ini menyebabkan penurunan saturasi oksigen, hipoksia, dan hiperkapnia. Gejala yang dialami adalah dengkuran keras dan episode henti napas saat tidur di malam hari, sulit mempertahankan tidur, lelah, mengantuk, dan sulit konsentrasi di siang hari. Diagnosis OSA dapat ditegakkan melalui hasil polisomnografi (PSG), bila terdapat 2 atau lebih kriteria berikut: 1. Terdapat 5 atau lebih kejadian obstruksi pernapasan (apnea obstruktif dan campuran, hipopnea, atau respiratory effort-related arousals/RERA) per jam tidur pada pasien dengan satu atau lebih gejala: - Rasa kantuk berlebihan, tidur non-restoratif, kelelahan, atau muncul gejala insomnia - Bangun tidur dengan tahanan napas, terengah-engah, atau tersedak - Kebiasaan mendengkur, gangguan napas, atau keduanya yang disadari oleh orang lain yang tidur bersama atau orang lain - Hipertensi, gangguan mood, gangguan kognitif, penyakit arteri koroner, stroke, gagal jantung kongesti, atrial fibrilasi, atau diabetes melitus tipe 2. 2. Terdapat 5 atau lebih kejadian obstruksi pernapasan lebih kejadian obstruksi pernapasan (apnea obstruktif dan campuran, hipopnea, atau RERA) per jam tidur berdasarkan baku emas polisomnografi.

    Telly Kamelia

  • Pengaruh Terapi Musik Terhadap Kecemasan Pada Pasien Dengan Ventilasi Mekanik Di Ruang ICU
    Vol 9 No 1 (2022)

    Pengaruh Terapi Musik Terhadap Kecemasan Pada Pasien Dengan Ventilasi Mekanik Di Ruang ICU

    Heni Bayu Putri

    Mahasiswa Program Studi Ilmu Keperawatan IKesT Muhammadiyah Palembang
    Institut Kesehatan dan Teknologi Muhammadiyah Palembang

    ABSTRAK

    Latar Belakang : Intensive Care Unit (ICU) merupakan bagian di rumah sakit dengan staf dan perlengkapan yang khusus. Ventilator atau ventilasi mekanik merupakan mesin teknologi untuk membantu fungsi pernapasan. Pasien yang terpasang ventilasi mekanik sering sekali mengalami peningkatan stress fisik, dan psikologis yang menimbulkan kecemasan. Untuk mengatasi kecemasan dapat di obati dengan farmakologi dan non farmakologi. Terapi musik dapat mengalihkan perhatian seseorang dari stress dan kecemasan. Tujuan : Untuk Menganalisis artikel jurnal penelitian tentang Pengaruh Terapi Musik Terhadap Kecemasan Pada Pasien Dengan Ventilasi Mekanik di Ruang ICU. Metode Penelitian : Metode penelitian ini merupakan penelitian Review Literature. Pencarian artikel menggunakan database elektronik seperti google scholar, pubmed, dan sciendirect. Kombinasi kata kunci yang di gunakan adalah terapi musik, kecemasan, ventilasi mekanik, kecemasan pasien dengan ventilasi mekanik di ruang ICU, terapi musik untuk kecemasan pasien ICU. Hasil : Berdasarkan hasil ulasan 10 artikel di dapatkan bahwa fenomena yang telah dijelaskan berkaitan dengan terapi musik terhadap kecemasan pasien berventilasi mekanik di ruang ICU mampu mengalihkan perhatian pasien dan menurunkan kecemasan pada pasien dengan ventilasi mekanik di ruang ICU. Kesimpulan : Berdasarkan dari hasil 10 artikel ilmiah yang telah dapat disimpulkan bahwa terapi musik dapat mengurangi kecemasan yang dialami pasien dengan ventilasi mekanik di ruang ICU.
    Kata Kunci : Ventilasi Mekanik, Kecemasan, Terapi Musik

  • Pulmonologi Intervensi Dasar
    Vol 9 No 1 (2022)

    Pulmonologi Intervensi Dasar

    Steven Zulkifly1, Gurmeet Singh2
    1 Dept. Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia, RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo
    2 Divisi Respirologi dan Penyakit Kritis, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia,
    RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo

     

    ABSTRAK
    Bidang pulmonologi intervensi telah mengalami perkembangan pesat dalam beberapa dekade terakhir. Penyakit pada daerah pleura kasus yang sering ditemukan dalam praktik klinis sehari-hari baik di instalasi gawat darurat ataupun rawat inap. Intervensi pleura dengan panduan ultrasonografi (USG), pemasangan chest tube ukuran kecil, dan pemasangan indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) telah merubah pendekatan tatalaksana secara signifikan. Modalitas ini bersifat sangat mini invasif dan memberikan luaran yang baik. Selain penyakit pleura, keganasan paru juga menjadi salah satu penyakit di bidang respirologi yang sering ditemukan. Diagnosis yang cepat dan tepat sangat diperlukan untuk menentukan tata laksana yang efektif. Untuk lesi yang terletak di perifer paru atau dinding dada, tindakan transthoracal needle aspiration / biopsy (TTNA/B) menjadi pilihan dikarenakan prosedur yang bersifat minimal invasif. Oleh sebab itu, pada literatur ini akan dibahas lebih lanjut mengenai indikasi, kontraindikasi, persiapan, prosedur, dan komplikasi dari tindakan-tindakan tersebut.
    Kata Kunci : torakosentesis, chest tube, indwelling pleural catheter, transthoracal needle aspiration / biopsy

  • Current Approach to Post-COVID-19 Pulmonary Fibrosis
    Vol 9 No 1 (2022)

    Current Approach to Post-COVID-19 Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Mawin Mahen*, Gurmeet Singh**
    *Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia
    **Division of Respirology & Critical Care, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine
    Universitas Indonesia

    ABSTRAK


    Jumlah pasien yang pulih dari COVID-19 terus meningkat di seluruh dunia, namun ada kekhawatiran mengenai konsekuensi jangka panjang pada organ paru pasien penyintas COVID-19. Fibrosis paru pasca-COVID-19 (post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis, PCPF) telah diketahui sebagai komplikasi COVID-19, dapat terjadi pada sejumlah besar penyintas COVID-19, dan dapat bertahan berbulan-bulan setelah awitan infeksi. Patogenesis PCPF belum sepenuhnya dipahami dan kemungkinan bersifat multifaktorial, melibatkan beberapa jalur seperti inflamasi, hipoksia, dan tromboemboli. Pasien dengan penyakit yang lebih parah, usia lebih tua, dan memiliki komorbiditas berisiko lebih besar terkena PCPF. Pasien PCPF mungkin asimtomatik atau bergejala, paling sering berupa sesak napas pada berbagai tingkat keparahan, dan pemeriksaan paling baik dilakukan dengan CT resolusi tinggi. Saat ini tidak ada terapi yang sudah terbukti efektif untuk PCPF, dan banyak uji klinis sedang berlangsung. Prognosis jangka panjang PCPF juga masih perlu dipelajari lebih lanjut.
    Kata kunci: COVID-19, fibrosis paru, fibrosis paru pasca-COVID-19

  • The Role of External Validation Studies of Clinical Predictive Models (CPMs) in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
    Vol 9 No 1 (2022)

    The Role of External Validation Studies of Clinical Predictive Models (CPMs) in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

    Hasna Afifah1, Asri C Adisasmita1, Fitriana Nur Rahmawati2, Zulkifli Amin2
    1 Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia
    2 Division of Respirology and Critical Care Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia – Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital

    ABSTRAK

    Model prediktif klinis atau sistem skoring saat ini makin populer dan mengakibatkan terlalu banyak model skoring yang ada namun studi yang melakukan validasi eksternal terhadap model-model tersebut masih sangat kurang. ARDS merupakan salah satu sindrom penyakit yang memiliki mortalitas dan morbiditas yang tinggi. Model skoring biasanya digunakan dalam memprediksikan luaran pada populasi yang memiliki risiko tinggi seperti pada ARDS. Pada telaah ini kami ingin memberikan gambaran tentang bagaimana studi eksternal harus dilakukan dan dilaporkan khususnya pada area ARDS. Pada area penelitian ARDS, sebagian besar studi validasi eksternal yang telah dilakukan memberikan laporan yang inadekuat, yaitu biasanya hanya menyebutkan diskriminasi saja dan tidak melaporkan kalibrasi. Kami merekomendasikan peneliti untuk mengikuti panduan TRIPOD yang merupakan panduan telaah kritis yang paling relevan dalam menilai dan melaporkan penelitian terkait model skoring. Studi validasi eksternal yang dilakukan dengan baik dan transparan dapat memudahkan klinisi dan peneliti lain dalam melakukan penilaian mengenai perfoma dan tingkat akurasi suatu model.
    Kata kunci: acute respiratory distress syndrome, clinical predictive models, external validation, TRIPOD

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